December 25, 2010

The word ‘library’ is rich in tradition, meaning, and usage. The definitions of ‘school library’ givenby various library scientists and associations reflect this heritage. Throughout the world the Libraryof a school is considered as part and parcel of the academic set-up. It is created and maintained toserve and support the educational activities of the school. The recommendations of numerouscommissions and committees established by the Government of India and various other states forthe improvement of school education can bring in desired results provided the school has the fullcomplement of library resources, personnel, and necessary infrastructure. So far the school libraryhas not been given its rightful place in the scheme of things. Nevertheless, it can play a very importantrole and help the school in achieving the educational objectives. If we recognize the value andimportance of informal system of education, then library method of self-education is sure to get itsdue place.
The school Library provides information, inculcates ideas, and develops knowledge that is soessential to functioning successfully in today’s information and knowledge based society. It isfundamental to school library to equip students with life long learning skills and develop in themcreative thinking and imagination, and enabling them to live as ideal and responsible citizens.
Thus, the school library must be made the hub of all the activities planned and executed in school.It can be used by students to prepare for their next class period, home examination, generaleducation, information, competitions, recreation and inspiration. To cater to the wide varieties ofdemands of students and teachers it has to judiciously select and procure the prescribed/recommended text-books and other reading material from different sources, technically process itby making use of a standard scheme of classification, catalogue it to provide various access points,organise the collection on scientific lines, circulate the documents and disseminate the informationin the manner most liked by the students and teachers. In addition, the school library has to serveas a resource centre as well.
In Europe and other developed countries of the world a greater emphasis is laid on the librarymethod of teaching. The School Library Staff support the use of books and other informationservices which range from the fictional to documentary, from print to electronic within the fourwalls of the library as well as outside. This is all done to enthuse the young minds of pupil to unfoldtheir self and discover their potential. A lot of assignments are given to the pupil for which they haveto sit and work in the library itself. This method of teaching makes them skillful and discriminatingusers of library resources and services.
Although the school library has been recognised as an essential component of a good school, yetmany schools of our country lack library facilities. From the prevailing picture of school situation inour country, it can be seen that much remains to be done in providing our schools with well-organisedlibraries, particularly so in far flung rural areas. Currently, the situation is such that a few bookslocked in a classroom are given the status of a library. Millions of our school children, other thanthose studying in public schools, are being deprived of the full complement of library resources andservices, which they need and are entitled to. Even in schools where library facilities exist, thepicture is not very bright. The condition of these libraries is below the standard when comparedwith their foreign counterparts.
In the education of young child, the printed and other audio-visual resources are essential andneeded in abundance. These resources are the basic tools, which are required for the effectiveteaching and learning. Our educational planners and administrators have rightly stressed the pointof view of quality education. It is through the library that the material needed by teachers andstudents can be supplied efficiently and economically and its adequacy and quality assured. Merelystocking the reading material in schools is not enough. Care must be taken to get these materialsproperly organised and make the same easily students and teachers. All schools, irrespective of thenumber of accessible to students registered, should be provided with a library organized on modernlines and supervised by a qualified trained librarian. The provision of adequate supporting staff isvery much essential in achieving excellence in library and information services.
The provision of School Library service must be open to the whole school community regardless ofgender, race, and economic and social status, religious faith, nationality, language, and physicaldisabilities. The School Librarians should see to it that specific services and materials are providedto those who are for some reason unable to use mainstream library services.
All schools have a Library period in their Time Table for all classes. Students go to the Libraryduring this period to get the books issued or returned. The time available with the Librarian foreach group is so little that he hardly gets any time to do any thing else other than normal ‘issue andreturn’ of books. The school authorities will do well to relieve the Librarian from any formal teachingwork and encourage him to take extra interest in promoting library use for the larger good ofstudents. The Principal of the school should ensure regular and timely release of funds for thepurchase of reading material. Necessary tools required to technically process the reading materialsuch as latest edition of classification scheme; cataloguing code; and list of subject headings shouldbe made available to him. Full cooperation needs to be extended to the Librarian in the timelydissemination of information.
It is needless to emphasize that School Library is essential to every long-term strategy for
 Formal Education
 Information Provision
 Economic, Social and Cultural Development.
Thus it must be supported by the local, state and national governments of the day.
In conceptual planning and development of school library services, the librarian is guided by thestated objectives of the school. These objectives mostly pertain to the provision of reading material,guidance in reading, reference service, instructions in the use of library catalogue and readingmaterials, personal and social guidance to students etc. With little modifications here and there,different school libraries decide about the priorities of services to be offered and frame a set ofobjectives to be achieved. The major objectives of a school library are to:
Effectively participate in the teaching-learning programme of the school;
Provide the students with appropriate library materials both printed as well as audio visualand services for the overall growth and development of the personality of the students as anindividual;
Develop reading ability and interest, and inculcate love, enjoyment and pleasure of readingamongst the students;
Assist the students to become skillful and discriminating users of library;
Offer opportunities for experiences in creating and using information for knowledge,understanding, information and enjoyment;
Support all students in learning and practicing skills for evaluating and using information,regardless of form, format or medium, including sensitivity to the modes of communicationwithin the community;
Stimulate and guide each student in the selection and use of books and other reading materialsfor the building of taste at appropriate level of maturity;
Workout a programme in consultation with teachers for the effective use of all types oflibrary materials;
The above-mentioned objectives focus upon the most important functions of the library in a schoolsituation.
In order to achieve these objectives the School Librarians need to:
provide the students equal access to all library resources.
arrange for high quality customer service to students organized on modern lines.
be familiar and aware of popular books and magazines, the students enjoy most.
arrange for reading sessions of popular books and magazines and talks by the celebrity authors.
make the library inviting and pleasing with comfortable furniture.
involve teachers and students in making the collection up-to-date.
draft student friendly library rules.
sign MOU (memorandum of understanding) with sister libraries for mutual help andcooperation.
Of late the committee pattern of administration is gaining momentum. Most of the institutions havea committee to advise. It will be advantageous if the school creates an advisory committee with thefollowing terms of reference:
To recommend suitable budgetary provisions for the library and resource centre;
To formulate policy in relation to the development of resources for reading, reference andprojects;
To develop a general programme of library service to suit the interest and requirements ofdifferent teaching departments of the school;
To frame, review and approve library rules;
To make recommendations for proper functioning of School Library Resource Centre;
The Committee may comprise the following:
Principal/Vice Principal (Ex-officio Chairperson),
One representative from each of the Subject Departments,
Six student members from classes VIII, IX and XI(2 from each class),
Librarian (EX-officio Member-Secretary).
The Committee may coop invite any other person(s) if found necessary from time to time. It shouldconstitute sub-committees for specific functions like ‘Book Selection Sub-Committee’, ‘StockVerification Committee’, ‘Weeding/Withdrawal Committee’, etc.
As members of the modern society we are all aware of its varied needs. Education is perhapsthe most important among them, for it helps to mould a well informed, knowledgeable and responsiblecitizen who alone will be able to contribute to progress and advancement. The advantages andopportunities which literacy, reading and communication by the written word offer will only besecured if the posterity grows up with an understanding of the importance of the book and the habitof using it in the formative period of childhood. To bring children and books together successfullychildren have to experience the pleasure of reading and there is a need for promoting reading as askill among them so that they are able to bring past knowledge and experience to the informationand text, and create new understanding, solve problems, make inferences and make connections toother text and experience.
Unfortunately, Reading habit has lost importance as both the young and the old are glued to theT.V. As far as the educational institutions are concerned, coaching students for the examinationsseems to be the be-all and end-all of our education system. However, after the home, the mostobvious place to develop the habit of life-long reading is the school and specifically its Library. Itis, however, a sad fact that, although today every school affiliated to the Central Board of SecondaryEducation can take pride of a Library, yet invariably these libraries function largely as repositoriesfor storage of a set number of books required as a condition of recognition, or where the studentscome once a week/fornight to take-out and return books rather than functioning as real ResourceCentre for Learning. It must function as the ‘hub’ of all activities in the school, a place wherecreative ideas can germinate, where exciting innovative experiences in learning take place, wherestudents come joyfully to spend some of their precious time browsing through books in a peaceful,pleasing and inviting atmosphere.
Apart from printed material, different kinds of audio-visual aids are also needed to enrich classroomlearning and to expose the students to the larger world around them, The Library should have asection devoted to films-slides, transparencies, photographs, maps, posters, charts, as well ashardware in the form of Radio & Television set, Tape recorder/player, VCR & VCP, slide & filmprojector, overhead projectors, computers and Xerox machine so that the Library develops into areal Learning Resource Centre where both students and teachers can explore new paths of learning.Obviously this will be difficult for all the schools in the initial stage, so a process of sharing underschool cluster system may be initiated.
According to the standards for the school libraries developed by American Association of SchoolLibrarians (a division of the American Library Association) the school library in “addition to doingits vital work of individual reading guidance and development of school curriculum, it should servethe school as a centre for instructional materials. Instructional materials include books – the literaturefor children, young people and adults-other printed materials, films, recordings and other latestmedia developed to aid learning. The function of an instructional materials centre is to locate, gather,provide and coordinate school’s materials for learning and the equipment required for use of thesematerials”.
It is observed that in some schools a distinction is made between a ‘Library’ and the ‘ResourceCentre’ and both are maintained as separate entities under separate management, while Libraryremains confined to print materials, the non-print media is taken care by the resource Centre. Itwould be desirable if the Library is also made the Resource Centre and made responsible for non-print and electronic media as well. Both these units should function under the overall supervision ofthe School Librarian.
One of the most important tasks of the School Library is to inculcate reading habits among theyoung generation. Books are the mute entities; their application does not come automatically. Italways requires some human agency that can induce the value of books among the students. In theschool environment this human agency is Librarian/Teacher. To achieve this there must be closecoordination between classroom teaching and use of Library resources.
It is an important part of Librarian’s/Teacher’s role to encourage reading and Library use positively.To assure the best results it would be necessary to provide regular and continuous service by theLibrarian in the use of Library. The student needs to be taught about the variety of books availablein the Library. How to select books, how to read them, how to take notes, how to relate informationcollected from various books, maintenance & handling of books, etc. Of course, it includes, theuse of Card Catalogue, Loan Procedures, Knowledge of books, Audio Visual materials, Computerassisted facilities, Use of bibliography, reference books etc. Infact, it would be more desirable toorganize a Library project or unit to acquaint the students with the Library.
Students will not learn to use library, if teachers do not use it regularly and profitably. Teachersshould see the possibility of Library use as an instructional aid and simulate its use through proceduresthey employ in their teaching.
The teachers can achieve this by: –
Telling pupils of books that might be of their interest.
Excusing pupils to go to the Library as the need for reference material arises.
Making assignments requiring the pupils to use Library resources.
Distributing suggested readings through mimeographed materials.
Emphasis is to be given to the study of classics, autobiographies, biographies, travelogues, essays,fiction and poetry. Dictionaries, Ecyclopaedias, yearbooks, children’s magazines, illustrations, mapsand charts and other reference books should be made available for use. Diversified choice ofbooks for reading will help the students in building up emotional balance and stability and promoteintellectual curiosity. Students should also be helped to write ‘Book Reviews’ which could bedisplayed on the Library Notice Board.
Although the Library should be the focal centre of learning in school, it needs to reach out toclassroom also. This is where a good interaction between the librarian and teacher needs to begenerated. Classroom Libraries consisting of select fiction books, non-fiction, and reference materialshould find a place in every classroom under the direct control and supervision of the Class Teacherand a student Librarians of the class. These Class Libraries can be used by students who finishtheir class work more quickly than others or as loan service for the class to supplement the booksthey read from the main library, or when a teacher is absent and no other substitution programme
can be arranged for. The collection of these class libraries can be interchanged section-wise andnew ones added each year so that the class gets a wide variety of reading material available to themat any time. Dictionaries, atlases, globes and maps should form part of the classroom libraries.
There are many programmes a librarian can introduce with the help of teachers and motivate studentsto read. For young ones ‘Story Hour’ are always a welcome treat, especially when it is supplementedwith charts, slides or a video film. A story told with puppets is another attraction for children. Thiscan be followed by story narration by children themselves, by creative dramatisation of storiesfinally whetting their appetites to turn to the book itself. Preparation of ‘wall magazines’, ‘wallnewspaper’ or ‘class magazines’ containing students writings in prose and poetry, their cartoonsand illustrations, mathematical puzzles, science quizzes and amusing anecdotes and jokes, all stimulateinterest and help to develop creative thought and expression right from earliest years.
A programme which can be very stimulating for the older students is a ‘book seminar’, when thestudents select and read a chosen book and then have a Round Table Discussion on it, led by aknowledgeable moderator. This often leads to students wanting to read more books by the sameauthor. Preparing projects on different authors and poets is another method of encouraging thereading habit. Students glean as much information as possible on writers, prepare their projectreport, and then give a presentation to the class inviting questions from classmates. This givesstudents the opportunity of familiarizing themselves with different poets, authors, and dramatistsespecially when there is an interchange of project material in the class. ‘Meet the Author’ sessionscan also be enjoyable when contemporary writers are invited for discussion with the students abouttheir books. Science symposia, when students choose current topic interest and make theirpresentations before the class or science clubs, are another way of attracting students to pore
through the latest books in science and technology to find out about the new inventions anddiscoveries. If participation from the audience is also encouraged, more students will wend theirway to the library to search out unexperienced questions to tax the mind of their fellow speakers.
During the long summer vacations, many students are at a loss to know how to spend their timefruitfully. They do not relish the usual type of routine home assignments, but if they are asked toprepare some interesting models, charts and projects on subjects of their choice, using materialfrom the books, it is amazing how much creative work is produced – working models made out ofscrap material, colourful charts and albums containing exciting new information on the latesttechnological developments taking place in different countries of the world; as well as in the creativeand performing arts; on global issues like pollution, ecological degradation; the population explosion- in fact on any topic under the sun. These can be displayed at a ‘Holiday Assignment Exhibition’when the students come back to school and parents can be invited to view them. If incentives areconsidered necessary, outstanding work can be awarded in the form of prizes, or extra bonusmarks can be added to the student’s grades in the term report.
Since the material collected by students for their projects is gleaned from books, this can be agood time to arrange a ‘Book Fair’ in the school inviting local publishers and booksellers to put upstalls for display and sale of their books. These ‘Book Fairs’ give parents an opportunity to seewhat is available in the market without having to travel from place to place, and if they can bearranged on Saturdays and Sunday when the parents are usually free from their work, the responsewould normally be very favorable. The Book Fairs encourage students to spend their pocket moneyon buying books for themselves or as gifts for their friends. They also help librarians and teachersto select the books for the library.
Although the library programmes should go on throughout the year, some schools organise ‘ BookWeek’ every year to focus attention of the whole school – the Principal, the Faculty, the Studentsand Parents – on the value of books and the habit of reading, and to make the school communitymore library – conscious. During the ‘Book Week’ a whole variety of programmes can take placecatering to the interests of each age group of students. The programmes may include talks andlectures, discussions, book reviews, book exhibitions, visits to local libraries, screening of filmsand so on. The ‘School Book Week’ may coincide with the ‘National Book Week’ organized bythe National Book Trust or the Indian Library Association during 14-20 November each year.Each Faculty may also like to organise a Faculty Day, such as ‘Social Studies Day’, ‘Mathematics
Day’, ‘Creative Arts Day’, ‘Language Day’, Science Day’ etc. The Arts Department of the schoolcan organise painting contests on the ‘Joys of Reading’; put up catchy slogans; prepare attractive‘Book Marks’ and ‘Book Covers’, and beautify the library.
As a part of ‘Book Week’, the schools may organise ‘Book Donation Drive’ and the students maybe encouraged to share their book with others and donate good books of their own to the library.Parents and well wishers may also be requested to donate books. This can be very useful in initialstage when the school is building up its library, and if it is well-endowed then the ‘Book DonationDrive’ can be directed towards collection of books for a Mobile Library for the Local Hospital; orneoliterates or less well-endowed rural schools. When donating books, however, students shouldbe impressed upon that book must be in good condition fit to find a place in the Library.
Another useful suggestion for promoting an interest in books and reading is to establish a ‘ReadersClub’, an idea put forward by the National Book Trust during the National Book Week in 1986. Inspite of declining habit of reading, there are still children in every school and in every class who arevoracious readers and who naturally gravitate towards books, and, if there is one, to the Library.These interested readers can form the nucleus of a ‘Readers Club’. The Club members can meetregularly to help plan out implement the library programmes in school, discuss books and voice theviews and ideas of student body about the running of their library. The detailed note on the workingof the ‘Readers Club’, outlined by the National Book Trust may be made use of.
Library use and reading habits can also be considerably augmented by performing other activitieslike talks, stories sessions, display, homework facilities, outside library visits, reading programmes,lectures & symposiums, play reading groups, quizzes, Library Clubs, Brain Trusts, Dramatic shows,(where space & staff permit), Book Exhibitions and exhibitions of children art and handicraft in theLibrary.
Many organizations are also working for development of reading habits among young generation,one of such organization is “International Board on Books for the Young” with its headquarters inSwitzerland having a goal to make accessible to children books form different parts of the world.So that they grow up understanding each other more. Efforts are also being made to encourage thereading habits in children through a strong library movement. This organization also suggests needfor a certain attitudinal change on the part of parents who stress overly on academics what theydon’t realize is that the child who reads more fares better academically and develops greater powersof expression, besides developing more general awareness.
In the European countries a lot of attention is given to develop the reading habit among children.Writing children’s books is taken very seriously and writers and publishers are encouraged to producequality literature. In India only a small number of publishers e.g. about 10% publish books forchildren, and children’s literature. Children’s books are seldom published on good quality art andglazed paper with attractive illustrations as in the foreign publications. In India, children’s booksare largely imported from the well known foreign publishers e.g. Penguin, Collin, Hamlyn, Ladybird,Hadder, and Stoughton etc., However, in recent times some Indian publishers have tried their handsin this terrain e.g. ‘India Book House’. It has brought out popular editions of ‘Amar Chitra Katha’and ‘Pustak Mahal, Delhi’ has created a Knowledge Bank’ (in 06 vols.) for childrens and publishedseveral unique and informative titles under its ‘Children Science Library Series’. Rajpal & Sons,Diamond Pocket Books, Delhi and Vivalok Comics Series are also doing well by bringing alivegrassroots peoples stories and other works. Good work is also being done by the ‘Children’sBook Trust’ and the ‘National Book Trust’.
In India majority of children belong to villages and study in the vernacular medium. There must bevariety of publications in Hindi and other regional languages. What is needed is a close interactionbetween various Indian languages. The translation of children books from one language to anothercould usher in a silent revolution. If popular books are translated in many languages it would producean excellent crop of popular literature for children, and fill a long gap.
Children by nature are inquistive. We must kindle their desire for discovery inside them, unfortunatelyseldom it is realized that readership can not be produced suddenly. It has to be groomed fromchildhood. Neglecting childhood will eventually lead to an adult world which has no relationshipwith books. So, the child readership has to be provided with its share of food for thought, morefun, subtle sensitivity, creative information, fantasies and tales.
Books play vital role in our life. It is a most adaptable invention for conveying knowledge. They arethe tools of learning and they act as the chain of communication from the older generation to theyoung. Books are considered to be the object of art, which are created through the processes ofwriting, editing, printing and binding etc. They are the material means through which the literature,ideas, viewpoints, inventions, incidents, experiences, and knowledge etc. are transmitted to thesociety. Libraries are the agencies for the acquisition, preservation, effective use and disseminationof recorded knowledge and information contained in books and other documents.
In the context of library and information science books cover all kinds of reading material in publishedform, However in recent years the term ‘book’ has been replaced by the term ‘document’ whichhas a wider connotation and covers all kind of materials including books in any form i.e. periodicals,Govt. publications, audio-visuals, slides, paintings, globes, charts, maps, microforms and machinereadable forms etc. However, the book still forms a major constituent of a library.
To call a document ‘book’ in real terms, there are UNESCO standards, which read as a book,must have at least 49 pages or more, 22 to 30-cm, height and 1.5 to 4cm.thickness only than adocument is called ‘book’ failing which a document is called’ pamphlet’ and not book.
Broadly the books can be categorized in the following manner.
I.General book: – The subject matter is discussed in a general manner. The subject maybe simple exposition of a specific subject.
II.Textbook:-It is a book of instructions developed for the students of a particular levelcourse for the particular branch of study. Accordingly it provides basic knowledge abouta particular subject in an easy and understandable language with colorful presentationand plenty of illustrations.
III.Reference book: – Contains readymade information basically known as compilation andcompendium of various disciplines of knowledge. They are not meant for continuous readingrather these are consulted for specific piece of information. The variety of reference booksinclude dictionaries, encyclopedias, yearbooks, almanacs, biographical dictionaries,handbooks, directories, gazetteers, and atlases etc.
So far as physical presentation and getup is concerned a book may be a single volume ormulti volume book. And on the basic of its thought contents it may be termed as ‘Treatise’,’Monograph’ or ‘Classic’ etc.
PARTS OF A BOOK: It is important to understand the anatomy i.e. various parts of printed bookin order to recognize a well designed book in terms of its relative and practical value for readingand study by the students and teachers.
Every printed book has three distinct Parts:
a.Preliminaries also known as prelims or prels;
b.Body of book i.e. Textual matter or Text; and
c.Subsidiaries also known as End matter.
When a book is printed, the textual matter is printed first. Preliminaries and Subsidiaries are printedseparately and latter prefixed or appended to the textual matter.
The preliminary pages may include the following:
Announcement: If the author has more publications to his credit, the list of the same isannounced on the back of half title page.
Frontispiece: It may be a photograph, picture or an illustration relating to the theme of thebook.
Title Page: Provides information like full title of book, alternative or parallel title, if any,and Author’s/Collaborator’s name, qualifications, designation and Publisher’s details etc.
Bibliographical Note: On the back of title page information pertaining to copyright, edition,license and printer etc. is provided.
Dedication: The author may express personal affection to the fellows who inspired him towrite the book.
Foreword: Contains introduction of the subject of the book by somebody other than author.
Preface: Contains introduction of subject reflecting its scope and purpose by the author.
Acknowledgement: The author extends thanks and courtesy to those who have helped himin preparing the book.
Table of Contents: Provides list of topics discussed in the book and shows their locations(Page Nos.).
List of Illustrations: Provides list of illustrations, plates etc. used in the book and reflectstheir position.
List of Abbreviations: List of shortened or abridged forms of words, which the author hasused in the book.
Errata or Corrigenda: List of errors discovered in Textual matter after printing.
Body of book i.e. textual matter or Text: Readers are primarily concerned with the text of thebook. Preliminaries and subsidiaries are auxiliaries, created to offer some additional help to readersin reading the book.
Subsidiaries: Include the following items in following order. It is not essential that each book willbe having all the various features but they are common elements found in books.
Notes: The beginning of ‘end matters’ should provide the notes, if required, for the relevant passagesdiscussed in the book.
Appendices: After notes, appendices are provided especially for tabular information, ifrequired.
Glossary: For the highly technical subjects treated in the book, a glossary of technicalterms is provided reflecting their meanings.
Bibliography: List of books, either author has consulted or recommended for further reading.
Index: Most important, serves as systematic guide to the textual matter with exact referenceof page No.
Finis: Found in multivolume books, printed at the end of last volume.
Fly leaves: Some blank sheets of papers.
Plates and Maps: The illustrations that couldn’t be printed with the text can be providedhere.
End Papers: Opaque paper for concealing the mechanism of binding and for providingsome extra strength to covers.
Book Jacket: To prevent the book from dust etc., garment is provided. There is, of course,an unlimited range of items which could be added to the collection of a library:
Audio Visuals: This type of documents may either be a recording on which sound vibrations havebeen registered by mechanical or electronic means so that the sound is reproduced such as disc,rolls, tapes, (open reel to reel, cartridge and cassette), sound recording, slides, gramophone records,and sound recordings on films etc. or it may be a length of film, with and without record soundbearing a sequence of images that create the illusion of movement when projected in rapid successionsuch as film loops, cartridge, and cassettes, discs, motion pictures, video recordings and othersynchronized presentations.
Micro Forms: Microform is a generic term for any film or paper containing text or pictorial mattertoo small to be read without magnification. Some reading equipment is therefore, required, to enlargethe micro image so that it becomes readable. Micro forms in the library collection include microfilms, micro fiche, micro card and micro print.
Games and Models: Games and toys are increasingly being used in a school library. Theireducational value is time tested and found tremendously useful for the enhancement of vision andimagination of a child. Similarly, models are also of immense value when a teacher can not show thechildren the real thing, it can best be explained by a working model. A picture can show only onedimension of an object but a model can demonstrate the shape of a complex object, texture andinside structure where a picture cannot.
Maps, Atlas, Globes and Charts: A map is a flat representation of a part or all of either the earthor the universe. An atlas is a document, which contains several maps, and the globes are also agreat educational help for a child as it is a spherical representation of the earth. A chart is a specialpurpose map generally used by navigators others may include celestial charts (i.e., a ‘Starmap’etc.). These documents are also extremely popular among the library clienteles.
Machine Readable Formats: These are documents in which information is coded by methodsthat require the use of machine for processing. Examples include information stored on magnetictape, Floppies, CDs. in optical media compact discs (CDs) are latest information devices in digitalform. Now e-books and e-journals are also finding their way into libraries.
Pictures: Pictures in a library collection may include illustrations, drawings, paintings, prints,reproduction, photographs, and technical drawings etc.
Others: Other categories of documents include manuscripts, dissertations & theses, govt.documents, periodicals, pamphlets, patents, trade literature, standards & specifications, researchmonograph, bibliographies and Indexes etc.
The location of the school library is of as much concern as is its size and shape. It should best belocated in an area of maximum accessibility to the students and teachers. The premises chosen toaccommodate the library should meet the following requirements:
should be in a quite area free from excessive noise, disturbances and pollution.
should be away from canteen, common room, play ground and parking area
should have good ventilation and ample day light.
should have sufficient floor area in the Reading Room to enable the students to use itcomfortably either in groups or individually.
should have sufficient work space for the staff to receive books on approval and undertakeaccessioning, classification, cataloguing, minor repair, issue and return, and reference serviceactivities.
should have separate enclosure to be used as Committee/Conference Room by teachersand pupils for participating in joint or group discussions.
should have sufficient stack area so as to organise the books in open shelves.
should have a counter/enclosure for keeping personal belongings.
The BIS standards provide that the secondary and senior secondary school library building shouldhave a Stack Room, a Librarian’s Room and a Reading Room having a capacity of seating 40 to120 students at a time. The stack room should be big enough to accommodate between 10000 to15000 volumes.
The size and seating capacity of the Reading Room will depend on the optimum number of studentsthat a school usually admits. A provision of 10 sq.ft floor area per pupil in Reading Room is consideredadequate. On the basis of these considerations a Library should provide accommodation for atleast 50 students of a class at a time plus 10% extra space for other group activities, projects andreference service beside room for librarian, circulation counter, reference desk, books / periodicalsdisplay, committee/conference room, property counter, catalogue enclosure.
The major sources of Library Finance are:
a)Library fee paid by students;
b)Grant-in-aid by government;
d)Late fine/Overdue charges realized from the students for late return of books;
e)Sale proceeds of old newspapers, magazines etc;
f)Miscellaneous income (cost of lost books etc.)
Each student pays library and reading room fee. This fee should form nucleus of the Library Fund.All the grants(recurring and non-recurring), donations, sales proceeds of scrap papers, and therealisation of cost of lost books etc. should be credited to this Fund.
The cost of books and periodicals/newspapers is so prohibitive these days that it is really verydifficult for any school library to provide new books in required quantity. To meet the book needsof students and teachers, the government and other funding agencies should allocate adequatefunds for meeting Library needs.
The entire amount allotted for Library books should be made available to the Library at the beginningof the session to facilitate collection development in a planned way. A definite policy regarding theproportion of Library grant to be spent on various heads needs to be spelt out. However, to formulatesuch a policy based on percentage or some other convenient principles is not easy. It may not getapproval of many departmental heads. Apart from problem of deciding the proportion of budget toeach of the heads, there is also the danger of growth taking a very narrow line. Yet the amount ofgrant-in-aid received has to be allocated to facilitate purchases. There is no better alternative tothis.
The non-recurring grants received during the year may be spent on items for which they are released.But the recurring library grant as and when received must be allocated as far as possible accordingto the following formula:
Library Stationery10%
Miscellaneous (Library equipment and stacks etc)20%
Binding and repair10%
The amount allocated for books should further be allocated as follows:
General and recommended books30%
Reference books20%
Hobby books10%
Audio Visual Material10%
As suggested in the Yashpal Committee Report (1993) sufficient contingency amount (not less than10% of the total salary bill of the school) could be placed at the disposal of heads of schools forpurchase, repair and replacement of pedagogical equipment which could become part of the library.
Note: Should the needs arise, the funds may be diverted from one head to another.
A very competent and effective library staff is the corner stone of any good school library. It is notthe extensiveness of the collection or the amount of budget or the spacious building fitted withmodern amenities of a library. It is only the qualified trained librarian supported by other staffmembers who make the library truly functional. If the number of school library staff is inadequate,or if the librarian lacks the qualification which his/her work requires, it is certain that the schoollibrary will not function as an educational force. In this regard the norms laid down by CBSE aspart of Affiliation Bye-Laws may also be referred to. The post of a librarian supported by necessaryinfrastructure will have to be created and filled to initiate young pupils in the use of books and otherreading materials and inculcate in them the habit of life-long reading.
A minimum of two members of staff (Librarian + attendant) are essential in all school librariesirrespective of their size and age. In close access system of library service, even two staff memberswill not suffice. Moreover, the collection will be best used if the Library follows Open AccessSystem. It encourages better use of the library.
Some of the schools have included Library Science as one of the subjects under SUPW. Thestudents of these groups as part of work experience can be encouraged to assist the library staff indifferent ways. Even if there is no provision of work experience, it would be a good idea, if a fewsenior students are trained to assist the librarian in performing various jobs such as stamping ofnew books, pasting labels, dressing the shelves, doing minor repair of books, arranging exhibitionof books, manning the property counter and so on. In fact it is a good idea to nominate a studentlibrarian from each of the classes for a period of one month and rotate the process. The studentsare good workforce. Their potential must be exploited to the fullest possible extent.
The following library staff is recommended for different levels of schools having a strength of 2000or less:
a)For Secondary School, the library staff should consist of:
Librarian (TGT grade)- One
Assistant Librarian (Assistant Teacher Grade)- One
Library Attendant- One
b)Senior Secondary School: The Library Staff of a Senior Secondary School should consist of:
Senior Librarian (PGT Grade)- One
Librarian (TGT Grade)- One
Assistant Librarian (Assistant Teacher Grade)- One
Library Attendant- One
In case the number of students in a school crosses 2000, there should be a provision to appoint anadditional Library Attendant for every 500 students or part there of.
The Librarian should have love for books and should be a voracious reader. He should havepotentialities to inculcate the habit of lifelong reading in students.
He should be hard working and possess charming and pleasing personality. Above all, the personalityof librarian must be congenial, friendly and warm. A person with forbidding countenance, or anoverbearing nature, who enforces discipline through fear or compulsion, can never be successful inattracting students to the Library. A Librarian, therefore, must be calm, patient and relaxed with anunderstanding nature, encouraging the students, helping them to find out the books or informationthey require and ensuring that an atmosphere of peace and serenity pervades the Library and processof self-learning and discovering continues unimpeded. He/she should be fair to the students. Expectthem to respect their library and its rules.
i. Senior Librarian
Master’s Degree in Arts/Sc./Commerce + Degree Or equivalent course in Library &Information Science.
Master’s Degree in Library & Information Science.
Graduate with Degree or Diploma in Library and Information Science from a recognisedInstitute.
iii.Assistant Librarian
Matricualtion or equivalent with Certificate in Library and Information Science from arecognised Institute.
Matric with experience in Library + Working knowledge of English.
The professional and managerial responsibilities of school librarian require the knowledge, experienceand skill of professional librarian with several years of experience. Both the post and the post-holder should be treated on par with the head of teaching faculty in the school in terms of status,pay scales and other facilities.
There should be a regular channel for promotion for Librarian. He should be able to move up theladder in hierarchy. He should be given personal promotions like teachers after the completion of 8years of satisfactory service. He should also be considered for state awards as are admissible tohis fellow teacher colleagues.
Opportunities for further professional development and training of Head Librarian and other supportstaff should be similar to the teaching faculty. Library staff should be encouraged to participate inprofessional conferences, seminars, workshops, meetings, lectures, in-service training courses, andrefresher programmes organized within and outside the country. Such opportunities help librariansto widen their professional experience which ultimately help the school library as well as theindividual.
The school librarian’s job is one of the most difficult and challenging in librarianship. As a schoollibrarian he/she will have to manage information resources, prepare budget, teach information skillsto students and make a plan for the development of Library Resource Centre. He/she should
-Collaborate with teachers in the integration of information skills in the curriculum;
-Provide access to a comprehensive range of learning materials in different formats forborrowing;
-Promote the effective use of the library learning resources by pupils and teachers;
-Promote and foster the enjoyment of reading from the earliest age and cultivate in studentsthe habit of lifelong reading;
-Organize all learning and teaching materials within school to facilitate their accessibility,location and use;
-Remain aware of new learning resources, maintain contact with publishers and booksellers;
-Liaise with outside agencies and information networks and encourage their use by theschool community and thereby extend the range of resources available in the school library;
-Attend professional conferences, seminars, workshops etc and communicate/share thedevelopments in the profession with junior colleagues in the school library;
-Advise staff members in the selection of appropriate reading materials for enhancing theirwork skills.
To select, procure and accession the reading material and pass the bills for payment,
To classify reading material,
To catalogue reading material,
supervise shelving of books/periodicals as per their sequence and call number,
maintain reading room,
conduct stock taking with the help of teachers,
maintain silence, proper atmosphere and decorum in the Library,
prepare lists of books requiring discarding, weeding or withdrawal,
realise cost of books reported lost by students/teachers and deposit the amount with schooloffice,
take suitable steps for the improvement of the school library service,
perform such other functions in connection with improvement of School Library servicesas may be entrusted by the Principal from time to time,
assign duties to Assistant Librarian, and Library Attendant and supervise their work.
The Library Association of Great Britain has come out with a Check-list of Actions to be undertakenby the School Librarian. This list enumerates the steps to be followed by all Heads of Library andInformation Services in U.K. in the context of National Curriculum and Learning Skills. In the lightof the New Education Policy announced in 1986, this Check-list of Actions on the part of theSchool Librarians can go a long way in bringing change in providing library and information servicesto the students and teachers in schools. It asks the librarians:
1.To be involved in education and training, both within and outside the school;
2.To be involved in the family-of-schools network established to enable primary andsecondary schools to work together;
3.To be involved in the curriculum development by participating in curriculum planningmeetings of Head of Department level;
4.To arrange meetings with Heads of Department and subject staff regarding
-The contributions he can make in the provision of learning skills programmes includingtechnology use and training.
-The contributions he can offer, as part of the planning team, to each department. Hehas an overview of the curriculum and knowledge of cross-curricular links within eachsubject which will ensure effective use of both resources and learning skills programmes.
24 ensure that his role and the library and information services that he provides are includedin the school’s curriculum development plan by compiling a report for the Head teacherwith sections on
-his role within the curriculum.
-resources requirement for the curriculum subject, including costings based on theparticular needs of the school using available statistics (existing levels of relevant stock)and standards (e.g. Library Association guidelines), assessement of staffing implicationsand needs for both professional and support staff.
6.To compile annual reports covering implications for library support staff and funding, plusa review of the past year and development plan for the future.
7.To prepare a guide for the Governing Body/Management Committee of the Schoolcontaining an overview of his role as well as the implications for staffing and funding andhis plans for future development within the curriculum, and to make an offer to presentthis guide to the Members of the Governing Body as part of their training programme;
8.To approach his school library authority with his requirements for the curriculum to seehow they can facilitate:
-Professional development through provision of training for librarians and for teachingstaff by deputing them to attend conferences, seminars, workshops, refresher coursesetc.
-Professional support through provision of both book and information technologyresources.
Libraries, according to their clientele, collection, work and services are classified into Academic,Public and Special Libraries. The Academic Libraries are further classed into School Libraries andUniversity Libraries.
The School Library is at the foundation level and Central to the teaching-learning process. Theminimum standards that will enable School Libraries play their role more meaningfully and effectivelyare listed below:
1.SPACE [Accommodation]
Adequate and suitable space is the first and foremost requirement of a School Library be it aPrimary/Middle level or Secondary/Senior Secondary level.
1.1.Primary/Middle level: A minimum of a Standard Classroom for 40 pupils should be markedas ‘Library’ in all Primary/Middle Schools.
1.2.Secondary/Senior Secondary School: A minimum of three Standard Classrooms bedesignated as Library by removing the inner partition wall to organize Library and ReadingRoom in all the Secondary and Senior Secondary Schools, though the ideal is to have aseparate building built for the purpose.
The following structure of Library Staff is required for different levels of schools having StudentStrength of 2000 or less.
2.1.Primary/Middle Schools: A minimum of two members of library staff is required in a Primary/Middle Schools.
Librarian (Assistant Teacher Grade)- One
Library Attendant- One
2.2.Secondary School: The Library Staff of Secondary School should consist of
Librarian (TGT Grade)- One
Assistant Librarian (Assistant Teacher Grade)- One
Library Attendant- One
2.3.Senior Secondary School: The Library Staff of a Senior Secondary School should consistof
Senior Librarian (PGT Grade)- One
Librarian (TGT Grade)- One
Assistant Librarian (Assistant Teacher Grade)- One
Library Attendant- One
In case the number of students crosses 2000, there should be corresponding increase in the numberof Library Attendants for every 500 Students or part there of.
The fund giving agencies should calculate the Library budget as per following formula.
3.1. Primary/Middle Schools:
Rs 30/= per Student
Rs 150/= per Teacher
3.2. Secondary Schools:
Rs 40/= per Student
Rs 150/= per Teacher
3.3. Senior Secondary Schools:
Rs 50/= per Student
Rs 150/= per Teacher
The selection of books and other information resources in libraries is one of the most important andalso one of the most difficult of the librarian’s duties. Though the general principle of the collectionbuilding – “best reading for the largest number at the least cost” – is applicable to school libraries aswell. This is best done by a Committee comprising subject teachers, chairman/convener of thelibrary committee and the librarian. Necessary rules may be framed in the beginning of the year forguidance. Policy of book selection thus evolved may help in balanced collection of books thatmeets
 Educational needs
 Information needs
 Inspiration needs
 Recreational needs.
The task of collection development involves the following:
Liaison with teachers.
Evaluation/review of existing stock of books.
Drafting of collection development policies.
Cooperation with other libraries of the town.
Procuring publishers/booksellers catalogues.
Calling meeting of the Book Selection Committee.
Liaison with other units/sections/departments of the library.
Arrange for gifts/exchange/deposits of books.
Regular Weeding out/deselection/cancellation of unwanted, outdated, less used books.
Regular repair/ mending/ binding of books.
Budget allocation based on number of students and cost of books in subject streams.
Design and monitoring routine/ flow chart.
Identifying “not to be missed” key series and sets of multivolume books.
Establishing an ‘approval plan’ in association with publishers and major importer ofbooks to take advantage of subject profiling and timely notification of new titles.
Deciding the number of copies in accordance with the proportion of students populationin each subject department.
Receiving books on approval for the consideration of the book selection committee.
Coordinating the visit of the book selection committee members to Book Fairs tofacilitate on – the – spot selection.
The aim of School Library like any other academic library is to support the teaching – learningprogramme of the parent body. In conformity with the objectives of the School it has to
identify, select and procure course and related resources in support of teaching – learningprocess;
make available reading material and other resources as per requirements of teaching faculty;
arrange for adequate number of copies of all the prescribed texts and recommended booksso as to meet the book/information needs of all levels of pupil in the language of their choice;
arrange for co-curricular reading material to help pupil develop their skills and overallpersonality.
Certain Schools now provide Audio – Visual aids to their students through their Library MediaCentres. Use of tape recorders, CDs, and video films is now becoming reality in some of the
advanced countries. In view of these developments it is all the more important for School Librariansto know these new types of knowledge sources and add them to their collection.
Resource planning involves the process of ascertaining needs and reviewing present resources, anddeciding on the most appropriate items to meet those needs. The choice of resources should bebalanced to suit both present and future needs. First of all list the groups students, teachers andstaff that need to be catered for in the Library Resource Centre, for example:
-Curricular needs of pupils;
-Teachers needs for teaching and professional development;
-Recreational and general information needs of the above.
The School Library is required to cater to the curricular, co-curricular, hobby, recreational andother general information needs of the students and faculty members. Keeping in view the limitedresources at its disposal, it has to provide “Best reading for the largest number at the least cost”.Ranganathan’s Five laws of Library Science namely:
1.Books are for use,
2.Every Reader his Book,
3.Every Book its Reader,
4.Save the Time of Reader,
5.Library is a growing Organism,
are to be kept in mind while framing the book selection policy.
These maxims are of very significance and need to be kept in fore – front while doing book selection.Care should be taken not to procure notes, examination guides or subject-keys of any kind. Copiesof all the prescribed and recommended books should be available to meet the course needs ofpupil. Standard titles of reference books should be in ample number to answer questions ofbibliographical, biographical, geographical, historical, factual, statistical and general knowledgenature. Bilingual dictionaries, yearbooks, directories, gazetteers, who’s who, who was who,almanacs, general and subject encyclopedias will be of immense help to the student community.
Besides films, slides, CDs audio-visual and multimedia materials should also be purchased in agood number to engage the students during recess and free periods.
To promote the use of library collection extensively, and also to encourage formation of readinghabits amongst the school students, it is necessary to have a judicious book selection policy.Resources are always far short of the demand in any kind of library. This is more true in case ofschool library where the book budget is too scanty. Keeping in view the constraints of finance, it isnecessary that books which are relevant to the immediate curriculum, information and recreationneeds of students and teachers need to be added into the library. In the selection of books, therecommendations of the Book Selection Sub-committee should be followed.
As a standard Library should have at least 5 titles of books (other than textbooks) per student in itsstock subject to a minimum of 1500 books at the beginning. It should be continuously strengthened.The school library should subscribe to local and national daily newspapers and magazines in adequatenumber. At least a minimum of 25 magazines and 5 daily newspapers suitable for students andacademic recreational needs of teachers should be subscribed to.
Care should be taken not to purchase any book or subscribe to magazine that espouses or propagatescommunal disharmony or casteism or discrimination based on religion, regions or language etc. TheLibrary must not procure or display any book which has been disapproved or proscribed/bannedby the Government, Central Board of Secondary Education.
While searching for new releases in specific subject or titles regularly scan the publishers/booksellerscatalogues, trade bibliographies, book-reviews etc. The Librarian may mark the items in therespective book selection tools and place his recommendations before the Book Selection Sub-Committee. It is always better to get the books and other reading materials personally examined byBook Selection Sub-Committee members. The Librarian should ask for inspection/approval copiesfrom the suppliers. Items can then be retained or returned depending upon Librarian’s and BookSelection Sub-Committee’s decision. The suggestions made by the student community should beexamined carefully and given due weightage.
It is useful to identify the known publishers and producers of the reading material. Before selection,
the librarian needs to examine existing resources and identify the gaps and the areas to be developed.Each stock section of the Library Resource Centre (such as fiction, non-fiction, reference, journals,audio-visual items etc) will have different elements to consider in their selection. The followingcheck-list of criteria can be used in the selection of learning resources:
-Contents of the book
-Style of writing
-Relevance to subject contents
-Date of publication, edition
-Quality of illustrations and visual appeal
-Physical get-up, binding
-Volume and number of pages
-Page layout and margin
-Type size
The Book Selection Sub-Committee should ensure that the special interests of school students withregard to their hobbies, games, sports, scouting, photography, cooking etc. are not overlooked orundermined. A representative and balanced collection of Reference Books should form part ofLibrary Collection. A select list of the important and school level Reference Books in given inAppendix C which may be made use of by the Librarian while building reference collection. Careshould be taken to update and replace the reference titles at a regular interval of five years or so.
The following book selection sources should be regularly scanned by the Librarian and other membersof the Book Selection Sub-committee:
Indian Book Industry (Monthly), New Delhi, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
Indian National Bibliography (Monthly), Kolkata, Central Reference Library, Alipore.
Decent Indian Books (Quarterly), New Delhi, Federation of Indian Publishers.
Accession List South Asia (Monthly), New Delhi, US Library of Congress, N-11, South Extension.
UBD New Books Bulletin (Monthly), New Delhi, Universal Book Distributors, Pvt. Ltd.
Recent catalogues of publications issued by the National Book Trust (NBT), Children’s Book Trust(CBT), National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), and in-housejournals/newsletters of other leading publishers and booksellers need to be looked into for selectionpurpose. Most of these catalogues of publications are available free of cost from the respectivepublishers and booksellers.
The Committee should consist of:
1. Librarian (Convener),
2. Principal/Vice Principal (Chairperson),
3. Representatives of the Subject Departments,
4. One student each from science, commerce, arts and sports stream.
A proper record of all the books, whether purchased or received as gratis has to be kept by theLibrary. This is a permanent record and should be meticulously maintained and preserved from theview-point of audit and future reference and use. The Accession Number is to be written on the
(i) lower-half of the back of the title page,
(ii) secret page,
(iii) last page of the book;
(iv) all the copies of the bill/cash memo. The book needs to be physically checked andpiece verified before accessioning work is undertaken.
Specially designed Accession Registers printed in a good quality ledger paper with required 12columns are readily available with leading library stationary suppliers. It will cost a lot to an individuallibrary to get the same printed with its own name. For the sake of uniformity of records also it isbetter to make use of such Registers which are of standard size/columns and meet all the requirements.These Registers are available in sets of 2500 and 5000 entries. In a school library where annualintake is not much, a register of 2500 entries will suffice. The new Accession Register should beginin continuation of the last accession number. Over-writing and cuttings of any kind are to becountersigned by the Principal to avoid any audit objection.
While making entry in the Accession Register it is advisable to use ink of lasting quality so that thecolour does not fade away with passing of time. The Accession Register should always be kept ina locked almirah when not in use.
After accessioning, the books should be rubber stamped with the name of the Library. Book tag,book plate, book card pocket, and due-date-slip are to be pasted at the places decided upon bythe Library. Having done this, the book is to be classified according to a particular Scheme ofclassification, and catalogued according to a particular Code of cataloguing.
Each book is to be assigned a unique call number and necessary catalogue cards prepare so as toallow it to be accessed through the name of its author, title and subject. The accession number andcall number of the book are to be written at appropriate places and a book card giving informationsuch as its call number, accession number, author, title is prepared and inserted in the book – card
pocket. After verifying all these details the book should be released for use. If the book needsbinding, it should be got bounded first. The original jacket of the book should be retained for aslong as possible and even cut pasted on the board used in binding.
One of the major management tasks of the school librarian is to organize the reading material withinthe given framework of the library. This brings us close to the problem of classification of books ofvarious shapes, sizes and formats dealing with many subjects in different languages. Thus the job ofclassification involves giving a unique number called ‘Call Number’ in library terminology to eachof the books in the library to facilitate its location, placement/shelving at appropriate place in thestacks and circulation amongst the members of the school community.
The ‘Call Number’ of a book consists of three components, namely:
 Class Number;
 Book Number; and
 Sequence or Collection Number.
The construction of the ‘Book Number’ and ‘Sequence Number’ does not pose much of a problem.Different methods exist to construct these two numbers. As regards the ‘Book Number’, one maydo it simply by using the ‘first three letters’ of the surname of the author. The first letter of the ‘titleof the book’ may also be appended with a hyphen, if desired. For ‘Sequence Number’ the symbolssuch as:
‘RR’ for reference,
‘TB’ for text books,
‘HB’ for hobby books,
‘BB’ for book bank,
‘B’ for biographies,
or any other combination of digits may be used to indicate the location of a particular category ofbook in the library. These numbers may be superimposed on the book number. In other words a‘sequence number’ should be written just above the digits representing the ‘book number’.
A librarian will do well if he considers an established and widely used scheme of classificationrather than design and develop his own. It would be advisable to use only a standard and popularscheme of classification which the users will find in use later in further education in other educationaland public libraries. This gives continuity in experience and may serve as foundation for future.After all why should users of different libraries be made to learn new ‘Arrangement Order’ all thetime they go to a new library.
In general, most of public and other libraries in India use ‘Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC)’.There have been 22 editions of this monumental work. This itself speaks about the popularity ofDDC amongst the librarians throughout the world. Its use is, therefore, helpful at school level toserve as a foundation. One of the advantages of using ‘DDC’ is that it can be adopted in any largeor small library with modifications. Abridged editions of ‘DDC’ are also brought out to meet thespecial requirements of small public and school libraries.
A special schedule developed for School libraries is given in Appendix A. This Schedule alone maynot be found adequate to represent all the facets of a subject. Therefore, the use of the ‘StandardSub-divisions ‘(Appendix B) at times may be found necessary to separate a book from the otherbooks having same ultimate class. These Standard Sub-Division are not in themselves class numbersand hence can’t be used in isolation, but may be suffixed/added to any number from the schedule(Appendix A). While using these numbers, the preceding digit dash “….” is to omitted and a dot “.”inserted after the first three digits of the number.
The Schedule given in Appendix A and the ‘Table of Standard Sub-divisions’ given in Appendix Bis only illustrative. For a fuller number of a book, it is advised to look into the regular edition ofDDC22.The School Libraries may also decide to adopt the Abridged Edition of DDC which isbrought out for the use of schools and other small libraries.
The catalogue of the holdings of a Library is a vital link between the reader and the book. It servesas a key to ascertain the availability of book in the library and gives its call number. Thus a librarycatalogue has got to be in order and updated continuously to show the resources held by thelibrary. One may argue that in a small library catalogue is not essential, but its value will be increasinglyfelt with the expansion of the library. It is no exaggeration saying that a library without a propercatalogue is not of any worth to any institution, and schools are no exception.
The catalogue of the school library, if constructed on scientific lines, should unfold the book stock.A borrower should be able to locate a book in the catalogue whose (i) author, (ii) title, or (iii)subject is known. This prescription suggests that a catalogue must provide access to books throughall these approaches. The entries for
‘title’ and
approach may be filed under one single sequence following dictionary order i.e. A to Z. While‘author’ and ‘title’ approaches are specific in nature and resorted to only if the name of the authorand the title of the book is definitely known. The subject approach reveals the whole array ofbooks on the subject and is not limited to a particular author or title name. Different colour cardscan be used for ‘author’, ‘title’ and ‘subject’ entries.
The main entry is the basic record for each book and in its simplest form includes the followinginformation:
Call Number comprising class number, book number, and sequence number;
Author’s name beginning with surname and followed by forenames;
Title of the book (Imprint & collation: place of publication and publisher’s name; dateof publication; size, pages and illustrations, if any, may be provided if desired).
A more complete catalogue entry for a book may also include information if the book forms part ofany ‘ series’. In the last line of the catalogue, information about the various entries prepared for the
Main Line
book should also be provided so as to correlate different entries for future reference. This sectionof the catalogue card is called ‘Tracing Section’ in library terminology. The use of AACR2 cataloguecode is suggested. A sample entry prepared using this code is given below to serve as a model ona 5″ x 3″ card:
First Indention
Second Indention
Third Imaginary
Fig. 1: Structure of the Catalogue Card.
1st indention: 9 spaces from left margin
2nd indention: 13 spaces from left margin
3rd indention: 15 spaces from left margin
Added entry
Second line of added entry (if necessary)
Cl. No.
Bk. No.Main entry heading
Title proper [GMD] = Parallel title: other title/statement of responsibility -Edition/statement of responsibility relating to edition -Place of publication,distribution, etc. Date of publication.
Acc. No.extent of item; other physical detail: dimensions + Accompanying material.
– (Series; numbering). Notes.
Fig 2: Sample card showing three indentions.
Title: subtitle/first statement of
responsibility; each subsequent statement
of responsibility. – edition statement. –
First place of publication, etc.:
First publisher, etc., date of publication
Extent of item; other physical details;
Dimensions. – (Series)
Standard Number
1.The main entry heading begins on the fourth line from the top of the card.
2.Card is typed with single space with the exception of double spaces before the first note andbefore the tracing.
The skeleton card (Fig. 4) illustrates the form commonly used for author as main entry.
Main entry (Author’s name).
Title proper [GMD]; other title information/
statement of responsibility. -Edition statement. –
Place of publication;publisher, date of publication.
Extent of item: Other physical details;
dimensions. -(Title proper of series; series
Notes as required
Standard number: price
Fig. 4: Skeleton card for author main entry.
The guide cards should be inserted in the catalogue tray at a distance of every inch. Care should betaken that the catalogue tray is not much congested. The number of catalogue cards in a cataloguetray should be between 1000-1500.
The term ‘Library Automation’ is being used extensively in library parlour to mean the applicationof Computer to perform some of the traditional library activities such as acquisition, cataloguing,circulation, stock verification etc. Information Retrieval, automatic indexing & abstracting, andnetworking are included in its preview. Besides computer, telecommunication technology andreprography technology are also playing a significant role in library automation making Librariesand Librarians to redefine their objectives and roles respectively.
Labour saving.
Cost effective.
Efficiency in speed and operation.
Ease and accuracy in data handling.
Great speed and promptness in operation.
Elimination of duplication.
Great manipulation possible.
As a result of application of Computer and Information Communication Technologies andreprographic devices, a great change is taking place in Library & Information Resource Centres.The new technology is tending to alter radically our libraries and information resource centres. Asa result our library systems will undergo a major transformation in the area of information processing,storage and retrieval. Application and use of Computers is an established norm in bibliographicalinformation handling in advanced countries, but in India the pace of development in libraries isvisibly slow. Never the less the things are changing for good and more and more libraries areturning for computerization. The areas, which need immediate computerization, are:
1. Database activity
Creation of local database
Online access to remote databases
Downloading of information
2. Library operations
Serials Control
3. Data communication & Networking
 Message system
4. Management Information System
 Statistical manipulation
5. Other Applications
 Document delivery
In order to perform the tasks expected of a library quite a few libraries have written their ownsoftwares. The UNESCO bibliographic package CDS/ISIS has been very popular in developingcountries which is available free of cost. Libraries wishing to use this package may contact theDepartment of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR), (Government of India), TechnologyBhawan, New Delhi – 110016 for free supply of this package. Besides, a large number of Commercialconcerns have also come up in the field with their products. A few of these are listed below withtheir salient features. Keeping in view the requirements, the libraries are advised to select a package,which meets their requirements.
Alice for Windows is library automation management software. Features include:
 complete range of Library functions using discrete modules.
 Compatible with IBM computers
oRuns on standalone with Windows 95, Windows 98/Me, Windows NTWorkstation/Server.
o Runs on LAN with
– Windows NT platform
– Novell Netware
– LINUX Server with Windows as Workstation
o Runs on WAN with
– Alice WAN Server Version
Compatible with apple Macintosh Computers
o Runs on Alice Mac Version
o Z39.50 Client /Server Architecture
o Graphical User Interface (GUI)
o Intranet inquiry & System functioning
o Internet inquiry function for all OSs
o Exports and Imports data in more formats.
The Computerized Documentation Services/Integrated Set of Information System (CDS/ISIS) is aPC based bibliographic package developed by UNESCO. This software works on a simple PC/XT and is also available on UNIX and NOVELL platform. The Windows Version has also beenreleased.
It is Library Management Software developed by National Institute of Financial Management underMinistry of Finance, Government of India.
Installable on any machine that can host Windows 98 (for simple machine package) or Windows
NT (for Client/Server package).
Backend database SQL Server7/SQL Server 2000.
Microsoft data engine (MSDE) SQL Server 2000 is a part of Gyanodaya installation package.
Package is self-installing.
Installation may be done on client server platform or on a single machine.
Carries on all normal and essential library operations such as
-Reservation of book
-Serials control
-Rapid entry system for book/article entry
-Enrolling members
-Authority tables with indexing
-Stock Taking facility
-Occupies a total 112 MB space on CD.
It is a Web based Library automation software with the following modules:
Serials Control
Set up
House Keeping
The unique features of Web Centric Architecture are:
 No client needs to be loaded. Any machine with Internet connectivity can be a client.
 Works independent of client O/S. Works on Linux Client.
 Easy disaster recovery and back procedure.
It is an offshoot of Libsys. The LSEase has a mixed blend of functionality and technology thatadequately meets the automation requirement of any library. It is an integrated Library ManagementSystem, which covers various operations of a library in Acquisition, Cataloguing, Circulation, SerialsControl and OPAC. Some of the newly added features in LSEase include inbuilt barcode printing,member ID card making, Network downloading, Cooperative Cataloguing and library map etc.Optional Unicode support along with use of GIST/ISM publisher (from C-DAC) allows multilingualdata handling in Indian and international scripts/languages. Other add-on features include Web-OPAC, Web client, Mirroring and Sip-2.
It includes all the known features that are essential for a modern library i.e.
Article indexing
Serials Control
Export/Import of data
Its features are:
Efficient and user friendly
Adherence to international standards
Bar coding, Spine Labeling
Web enabling of required services
Unlimited Capacity
New Genlib
It is a Web-based library automation and information retrieval system, uses single integrateddatabase making for non-redundant data storage, efficient data transaction process and searching.The functional modules included are:
Serials Control
E-mail and instant messaging integrated in different modules of the S/W to ensureefficientcommunication between Library and users, vendors.
It has been developed by Information & Library Network Centre of UGC. It is designed usingClient Server Architecture, which imparts extra strength to storage capacity, multiple accesses tosingle database, various levels of security, backup and storage facilities etc. The S/W comprisesthe following modules:
Serials Control
It has MS-SQL Server 6.5 RDBMS as the backend. The inbuilt network feature of the S/W allowsmultiple libraries of the same system to function together as well as access distributed databasesinstalled at various locations.
Modules include:
Library Guidelines, Acquisition, Accession, Circulation, Staff & Members Management, StockManagement, Cataloguing, (Conventional & Non Book Materials) Journal/Periodical Management,Serials Control, Article Indexing, OPAC, Web/Internet, CAS & SDI Services, Bar Coding, E-Mailing, Internet, LAN/WAN Support.
Special Features
Digital Library Creation, CD-Creation and Xeroxing. In-built Browser, E-Mail & Internet Facility,Support for Barcode Reader, Scanner, Multimedia, Loss & Recovery of Resources, InternetConnectivity, CD Module, Serial Control, Auto E-Mail Transfer, Issue/Return, Renewal &Reservation of items or other resources. Automatic Bar Code Reading & Generation, ISBNInformation. Tracing on Internet. Selective Information Blocking, ODBC Connectivity, Generatesyour own Forms & Reports using ODBC, Output to DMP, Laser Bar Code Printer, Hard Disk(Text Format) etc. to store the data.
Stock Checking & Verification Report,
Annual Report in order of Accession Number, Name, Members,
List of Books in order of Author, Subject, Condition, Publisher, Accession Number, Title etc.,
List of Reserved Books as on Date,
List Issueable and Non-issueable Books/Journals etc.,
 Detailed Summery of Accession Register,
 Library Member List,
 Daily Transaction Reports,
 Latest Arrival reports
List of Journals available, Journal due for Return, Payments Details, Journal Subscription, JournalRenewal Subscription, Journal Exchange, Missing Issues, Delayed Issues, Ceased Issues, ClaimManagement etc.
 Items Not used, Least frequently used, Moderately used, Most frequently used.
 Department wise Comparison Chart, Monthly Cumulative Collection Reports etc.
 Budget Management: Purchases against Planned, Back Volumes, Book Bank etc.
Pending Recommendations : Acquisition, Approval, Order, Accession reason or any other reason.
Operating System
Windows 98, 2000 Windows NT, Windows XP, Unix/Linux
Database Support
Oracle, ODBC Support, SQL Server, MS-Access
Hardware Software Required
Pentium II with 64 MB RAM
Free Hard Disk Space 500 MB
Laser/DMP/Deskjet Printer
Bar Code Generation Software (Optional)
Scanner (Optional)
Bar Code Printer ( Optional)
CD Drive for Installation
Multi-user Support, LAN/WAN/Internet Web Enabled
It is a multi-user library software package in Windows NT/Novell Netware Server. It is CCF(Common Communication Format) based for import/export of data. The Standard package has inall the following 7 modules:
Serials Control
The software also provides customization as per local needs.
A school library is a service library. A Library even with a small collection can provide good libraryservice provided all its resources are organized using modern techniques. The members shouldhave open access to documents.
Issue and Return of a book is the most important activity of the school library from the angle ofstudents. Therefore, the Circulation System (also called Charging and Discharging) selected ordesigned and developed for the effective control of the items borrowed from the library should besuch that it is least cumbersome and less time consuming. There are various methods of Issue andReturn such as Newark, Browne, Register, Passbook, Ranganathan, Slip and so on. Browne systemof Issue and Return is most popular amongst the libraries as it is least time consuming.
In ‘Browne System’ the members are given Reader’s Ticket(s) having a pouch to enable them toborrow books from the library. While issuing a book one has to simply remove the ‘Book Card’from the ‘Book Pocket’ and insert the same in ‘Reader’s Ticket’ and put the due date stamp on theDue Date Label. This is the simplest of all methods of ‘Issue & Return’. The process does not takemuch time as no noting/writing work is involved. While returning the book the Librarian has to takeout the ‘Book Card’ coupled with the ‘Reader’s Ticket’ arranged behind date guides in the ‘ChargingTray’. The book card is separated from the Reader’s Ticket and inserted in the ‘Book Pocket’.The ‘Reader’s Ticket’ is retained by the library and kept in a separate sequence for future use orhanded over to the student member as per the practice of library . At the close of the day, the IssueRecord is got arranged and filed behind ‘Due Date Guides’.
Though it may be unfair to impose any fine for the late return of borrowed books, it is essential in a libraryso as to discipline the student members, but the amount involved in most of the cases is so trivial that it isembarrassment to the borrower as well as librarian. A formal receipt has to be written for the moneyrealized and account submitted to the Principal’s office. This practice should be done
away with, as it is not worth the labour. But if it is unavoidable, the Account Section of the schoolshould be informed about it for realizing the same along with the monthly school fee.
An alternative method of realizing the fine for late return of books is through the instrument ofConscience Box designed and developed by Padmashree Dr. S.R.Ranganathan. According to thismethod no formal receipt is to be issued to the borrower. The overdue charges are calculated bythe Librarian and the Borrower drops the computed amount in the Conscience Box. The key ofthis box remains with the Principal of the School. The Conscience Box is opened at a convenienttime in the presence of the Officials deputed by the Principal for the purpose and amount depositedwith the concerned authority. The distinct advantage of this method is that it saves time and developscivic sense and responsibility in library members.
Sometimes there may be such a heavy demand for a book, which has been borrowed that thelibrarian may ask the members to return the book. Instead of imposing fine for the late return ofbooks, a ‘Recall’ system may be introduced to get the books back. This could be achieved simplyby sending an overdue note to the concerned student through the Class Teacher. Experience ofthose who have resorted to this practice shows that the reminders sent by librarian/student-librarianare quite effective, especially with the members of teaching staff who are dilatory in returning theitems borrowed.
Members should be allowed to make reservation for any book they need. There should be a provisionto get any book reserved by any member of the library, be he a student or a teacher. This work
should be taken seriously by the Librarian, and member requesting the reservation should be informedabout the availability of the item as soon as possible. In case the reservation has been requested fora book, which is on loan, some sort of indication may be done in the ‘Issue Record’. A flag or the‘Reservation Slip’ itself may be clipped with the Book Card & Reader’s Ticket so as to serve asreminder to the Circulation Librarian. The ‘Reservation Slip’ should contain the full particulars ofthe member to facilitate quick contact with him/her. If the reservation has been requested for amisplaced/untraceable book, a thorough search should be conducted for the item and memberinformed accordingly. In no case the member’s request for a particular book should remainunattended to.
If a borrower reports the loss of borrowed book, he is advised to replace the book with a newcopy. If the book is not available in the market, the borrower may be asked to pay the current priceof the book after getting it verified from the Publisher’s catalogue or similar Book Tradebibliographies.
The price may also be got ascertained from the Accession Register and a formal receipt issued tothe borrower. Necessary posting be done in the Remarks column of the Accession Register indicating“lost and cost realized vide Receipt No…………….. Dated ……………. “and the Principal of theschool informed accordingly.
The initiation/orientation of student into the use of school library has got to be planned very carefully.For most of the students a visit to school library is the first encounter with the world of books. Thestudents have to be made aware of the privileges they are entitled to as also the rules they aresupposed to follow to derive full benefit. There are certain “do’s and don’t” which need to beexplained to students at the time of their first formal visit to the library. The whole programme hasto be planned in such a way that it is free from boredom and at the same time enjoyable. Handingover a printed copy of the Rules of the Library to the members alone will not suffice.
A formal lecture at the beginning of the academic session supported by the tape-slide demonstration/video presentation of the library followed by guided tour of various section/units of the Library willbe quite useful. Enough attention should also be paid to explain to students the matters such as:
Art and technique of using the library catalogue (e.g. entry element of author’s name,noting down the Call Number of the Books, rules of alphabetization followed for filing thecatalogue cards).
Arrangement of books on shelves (e.g. Salient features of the Classification Scheme,location of different sequences, components of the Call Number).
Procedure of ‘Issue & Return’ of books.
Identification of reference books for getting answers to specific types of questions.
Consultation of dictionary, telephone directory, yearbook, encyclopaedia, gazetteer, map,globe etc.
Use, care and safety of library books.
Familiarization with the parts of book.
Technique of using the index given at the end of book.
Procedure for “Reservation of book’.
Procedure for ‘Suggestion of new books’.
Responsibility of the member in case of loss of book or causing damage to book.
Getting No Due Certificate from Library when leaving the school.
Providing ‘Reference Service’ is the most important aspect of reader’s services in a library. Itrequires the backing of a solid and sound collection of recent editions of reference books.
CAS is the service meant for the speedy announcement of newly acquired information or documents.The main objective of CAS is to keep the students and other readers abreast of current developmentsin their respective fields of interests as quickly and efficiently as possible. The members of theLibrary need to be informed of recent arrivals of periodicals in the library. A list of issues ofperiodicals received during the month/week should also be brought out and displayed for theinformation of students and teachers. It is also desirable to devise ways and means to bring to thenotice of students and teachers the contents of the articles published in newspapers and periodicals.
A ‘List of Books Added in Library’ may also be brought out from time to time and displayed onLibrary Notice Board. A copy of this may also be put up in teachers/students Common Room.
All the books added into the stock must be put on display for a pre-determined period so as tobring them to the notice of students and teachers.
On special occasions such as ‘birth day’ of an author or leader, festivals, sport events etc. relevantbooks may be separated from the general sequence and put on a ‘Display’ to bring them to thenotice of students and teachers. When working with a group of students, the teachers may alsorequest the librarian beforehand to take out a set of books related to the topic and send them downto the class for a particular period of time. A number of such sets can be prepared according to theneed and age of readers, and distributed to class as and when required.
Newspapers are the most important source of latest information. It would be most appropriate ifthe relevant cuttings of write-ups, editorials, letters, statements, news items, events etc. are organizedin some logical order and stored in a classified manner on a computer for future reference in thelibrary.
With the help and cooperation of teachers, the librarian can prepare a ‘graded reading list’ suited
to the age and interest of class. This graded reading list can be of great help to the students inchoosing a book from the library. Often students tend to keep to the same author and level ofreading for a number of years simply because nobody has troubled to wean them away from afavourite author and introduced them to new ones. As a consequence, their vocabulary does notincrease; neither do new ideas germinate and grow.
The Librarian should provide at least a limited bibliographical service on special occasions such as’debate/competitions’, ‘sports day’, ‘school foundation day’, ‘national holidays’ ‘festivals’, etc. Aselect list of books available in the library on the given subject may be prepared and circulatedamongst the interested groups of library members.
It is essential for a Librarian to have a close liaison with other libraries in the vicinity. In case ofurgent need he may draw on the resource of other libraries and procure the books on inter-libraryloan and make them available for consultation within the premises of the Library. If for any reasonit is not possible to get the book(s) on loan from other cooperative libraries, arrangements may bemade to get at least a photocopy of the material.
When any reader requires one or more copies of the same size or in reduced or enlarged form thesame may be provided on no profit no-loss-basis.
The basic purpose of library is to disseminate knowledge mainly through availability of right documentsto the right person at the right time. The books of school library are subjected to heavy wear andtear, as the clientele is not mature enough to care for the borrowed items. There is wisdom ingetting the book repaired as it prolongs the life span of the book. If the repair is of minor nature thein-house repair will do. Ordinary gummed tapes should not be used to join the torn or detachedpages. This does not do any good and instead proves injurious and at times leaves the book beyondrepair. Mostly it is the spine of the book, which requires frequent mending. A brightly colouredmending tape may be fixed to the spine of the book and lettering on the spine of the books withbright colours may be quite beneficial and add to the book’s visual appeal when lying on shelves.
A good quality plastic sleeve of reasonable cost gives physical protection and helps in retaining thefreshness of the jacket and its original colours. This reinforcement can go a long way in enhancingthe life of book.
Discarding of the book/documents from the library is as important as the selection of documents inlibrary. Decency and change are the vital features of a dynamic library. According to Dr.S.R.Ranganathan the Library of a school follows the principal of ‘adult growth’ and thus its stocksneed constant replenishment. While new books have to be added, the old ones, which are nolonger of any use, should be gradually withdrawn from the shelves. This can be done with the helpand cooperation of the subject teachers. Further, it should be borne in mind that low cost booksare not worth binding, instead new copy may be procured and the old one withdrawn from thecirculation and necessary entry made in the Accession Register and Principal’s signatures taken inthe Remark column.
All out-dated books, worn-out books, books beyond repair, books withdrawn from the courseand such other items which are redundant such as editions that have lost their relevance need to betaken out from the shelves and discarded and necessary remarks made in the Accession Register.
A Weeding and Discarding Sub-Committee comprising
Principal/Vice Principal (Ex-officio Chairperson);
Heads of subject departments; and
Librarian (Ex-officio convener)
•may be constituted for weeding out and discarding of books.
The discarding work should be done gradually during the whole session and at every time of bookselection and purchase. Regular weeding-out exercise should be conducted at least once a yearalong with Stock Verification. It is as important as the selection of books. School library is a servicelibrary and hence it may not afford to retain a title because of sentimental reason. The principal andother authorities are to be convinced about the logic and economics of disposal of all unwanted,outdated, out of course, damaged and unused books.
The Weeding and Discarding Sub-Committee should physically examine the books and make specificrecommendations to the Management/Governing Body of the school for their withdrawal from thestock. Once the approval of the competent authority has been obtained, necessary posting may bemade in the ‘Remark column’ of the Accession Register.
The primary aim of stock taking is to ascertain if all books that have been accessioned in the librarycan be accounted for. There is need for stock verification in any library and more so in an openaccess library. This in an audit requirement too. It should be conducted annually; preferably duringannual examination days/summer vacation as there is not much workload during this time. As far aspossible the Library should not close for students.
There are different methods of stock verification. The ‘Shelf-list Method’ is one such method. It iseasier to verify the book stock with the help of Shelf-list provided it is complete and dependable.Shelf rectification should precede Stock Verification. Since the arrangement of Shelf-list is parallelto the arrangement of books on the shelves, it is a pre-requisite to put the books in order first.Once it is done, the task of stock verification will be simplified. The Shelf-list cards of missingbooks may be turned upside. These up side cards should be verified with the ‘Issue Record’. Therelated shelf-list cards of books found issued should be turned side down to indicate that they havebeen verified. The remaining up side Shelf-list cards should be tallied with the books sent for
binding and List of books withdrawn from circulation. Thereafter final list of binding and List ofbooks withdrawn from circulation. Thereafter final list of untraceable books be got prepared withtheir price and follow-up action initiated. Loss of three books for every 1000 books issued orconsulted is permissible and may be written off by the Principal and necessary entries made in theRemarks column of the Accession Register.
Accession Number Methods is another method of Stock Verification. In this method a ‘dummyaccession register’ is got prepared. The Accession Number of each book whether on shelf orissued out, or sent for binding, or withdrawn from circulation is cut from this ‘dummy accessionregister’. The list of uncut accession numbers with details such as author, title, price etc is gotprepared and the action initiated to withdraw such titles from the stock register.
Yet another method of Stock Verification is ‘Slip System’. In this method slips of 2″x2.1/2″ are gotready and the accession number of the book written down in the slip along with the indication ofAlmirah number and shelf number if the book is physically available in the library, or else the nameof the borrower if issued out, serial number of the list if sent for binding, or serial number ofwithdrawal list if removed from circulation, or the money receipt number if cost recovered. Theseslips are later got merged in one single numerical sequence. A final list of gap accession numberswith details of author, title, price etc is got prepared and the action initiated.
In a service-giving library, the losses are bound to occur. If the school library is found to be usedreasonably well, small number of losses should be ignored. The school librarian should not bepenalized or harassed for any loss of books provided he has taken adequate steps to prevent thelosses.
As per notification issued by the Ministry of Finance of the Government of India Vide its O.M.No.23(7) – E-ll-(a)-83 and GAG’s U.O.No. 1964-TA. 11/21-83 dated 23.12.83 the books are nolonger treated as item of store. The notification reads as:
“Government of India’s decision (1): The position of library books, etc, is different from that ofother stores. Accordingly, the following procedure shall be observed for purchase, write-off, anddisposal of mutilated/damaged books and physical verification of books in the libraries attached tothe various Departments/Offices:
(i)Librarian (not below the rank of Deputy Secretary to the Government of India) subjectto power delegated under Delegation of Financial Power Rules, 1978 may purchasebooks etc. from the reputed and standard booksellers on prevalent terms and conditions.Tenders need not be called for this purpose.
(ii)Loss of three volumes per one thousand volumes issued/consulted in a year may betaken as reasonable provided such loss cannot be attributed to dishonesty or negligenceon the part of a Librarian. Loss of a book of the value exceeding Rs. 200 (Rupees TwoHundred) and the books of special nature and rarity invariably be investigated and writtenoff by a competent authority.
(iii)Librarian who is of the rank not below Deputy Secretary to the Government of India orHead of the Department may write-off volumes mentioned in the preceding paragraphprovided the total value of all such books, etc, does not exceed the monetary limitprescribed in the Delegation of Financial Power Rules 1978 for Head of the Departmentin respect of deficiencies and depreciations in the value of stores (other than a motorvehicle or motor cycle) included in the stock and other accounts. In the event of thetotal value exceeding the monetary limit specified above, the loss of books shall bewritten off by the competent authority as specified in the Delegation of Financial PowerRules 1978.
(iv)There may be objection to the Librarian disposing of mutilated/ damage obsolete volumesto the best interest of the Library. However, the disposal of such volumes should bemade on the recommendations of three members committee to be appointed by theAdministrative Ministry/Department which shall decide whether the books mutilated/damaged/ obsolete are not fit for further use.
(v)Complete annual physical verification of books should be done every year in case ofLibraries having not more than 20,000 volumes and not fewer than two library qualifiedstaff. In case there is only one qualified staff the verification may be done as per sub-para (vi).
(vi)Complete physical verification at the intervals of not more than three years should bedone in the case of libraries having more than 20,000 but not more than 50,000 volumes.
(vii)Sample physical verification of intervals of not more than five years may be done in caseof libraries having more than 50,000 volumes. If such a sample verification reveals unusualor unreasonable shortage complete verification shall be done.
(viii)The verification should always be subject to surprise test check by some independentofficers. The decision regarding the selection of staff to whom this work may be entrustedshould be taken by the Administrative Ministries/Departments and Head of Departments.
Rules and regulation should be kept minimum, but certain questions must be decided. Such as thelength of the loan to the students/teachers, number of books which may normally be borrowed atone time, hours when the library will be open and like considerations. Regulations concerning thismatter should be the joint concern of the administrator, the teachers and the librarian.
Each service institution should have a set of rules to be followed and observed by its members.While framing these rules one should keep in mind the basic objective of rules which safeguard theinterest of the members on one hand and avoid embarrassment to employees in the discharge oftheir duties. The rules should be presented in such a way that they can be understood by studentsand do not daunt them from using the library.
“Welcome to your school Library! We hope you will enjoy using the Library. Here is some informationthat will help you to use the Library better”.
The books in the Library belong to the school. They were bought with tax money fee that yourparents and other people have had to pay. These people all want you to have the very best books.But they all expect you to take care of them. You will be held responsible for the care of the booksyou take from the Library. If they are damaged or lost you will have to pay for them.
The reading you do is the very important part of your education. Make the very best use of ‘YourSchool Library’.
Most people want a Library to be quiet and orderly because they want to read when they are there.That means that everyone must be thoughtful of other person and try to keep the Library a pleasantplace for reading and study.
You will be taught how to find the books and other things you want in the Library. It is importantthat you learn to do all you can for yourself so that you may become more independent. Yourteacher and the Librarian will always help you with those things you have not been taught to do foryourself.
You will need to know the rules about taking books home. They are given here to help you. Pleaseread them and follow.
All students, teachers and other members of staff can become members of the Library. The Principalof the School may allow any non-member to consult the books in the Library when it is open.Contact the School Librarian for any assistance you need.
The Library will open at the same times as the School. However, the ‘Issue and Return’ of bookswill stop 30 minutes before closing of the School.
You will be given Reader Tickets for borrowing library books. The books will be issued to youagainst your Ticket only, not on anyone else’s. You may have two books at a time. One of thesemay be fiction and non-fiction, or you may have two books of non-fiction, if you do not care tohave a book of fiction. You may never have two books of fiction at the same time.
The date on which these books are to be returned will be stamped on the Date Label. You maykeep all these, except the reserve books, for two weeks. You may not renew them unless yourteacher signs a request slip asking the Librarian to renew.
A book which is in heavy demand may not be issued/reissued. A book needing repair or binding toomay not be issued. You may consult it in the Library itself. Multivolume books, reference books,out-of-print books, magazines are not issued out. Books marked as ‘FOR CONSULTATIONONLY’ are also not lent out.
If you neglect to return borrowed books on time, you will have to pay a fine of Rs.5/- for eachweek it is overdue. So try to return your books on time. It is much more fair to others and will saveyou from paying fines. If you are absent from the school when your book is due, you will not needto pay a fine if you return it the very next day you come back to school and show the Librarian yourabsence slip signed by your class teacher.
Sub-lending of books borrowed from the Library is not permissible. They may get spoiled, damaged
or lost while in somebody else’s possession and may result in their late return and thereby makingyou pay the late fine.
In case the book is lost or damaged while in your possession, you will be required to replace thebook by a new copy of the same title and latest edition. In case you are unable to procure the samefrom the market, you may be allowed to pay the current price of the book as ascertained from thePublisher’s Catalogue. In case there has not been any edition of the book, the price as recorded inthe Accession Register may be charged and a proper Receipt issued for the same.
Members are allowed to make reservation for any book they need. A formal Reservation Slipshould be filed in and handed over to the Librarian. Members will be informed of the availability ofthe book when returned by other member.
Sometimes there may be such a heavy demand for a book which has been borrowed by you thatthe Librarian may ask you to return the book. Please cooperate with the Librarian and return thesame for the use of others.
The loan of a book may be further renewed for a period of two weeks on the production of booksif there is no request for the same.
If any member is found removing Library property without formal permission, his/her membershipprivileges may be suspended for some time.
Personal books or books of other library or other personal belongings such as bags, umbrella etc,are not allowed into the Library. These should be deposited at the Property Counter at member’sown risk. While going out of the Library the property so deposited must be taken back.
Your School Library belongs to you. Ensure its safety and avoid causing damage to itsproperty fittings, furniture, floor or walls.
 Make sure that
oNo one removes any page or pages from books, newspaper, or magazines.
oNo one puts any mark with a pen or pencil on any book of Library. This spoils thebeauty of books and renders them unusable by others.
oNo one deliberately misplaces a book and makes it difficult to locate.
oNo one removes catalogue cards from the catalogue tray.
While members are free to browse amongst the stack and take out the books of theirinterest, in no case they are to replace the books back on the shelves after use.
Finally, when leaving the School please clear all the dues payable to Library, return all theReader’s Tickets, Identity Card, books etc issued to you and obtain a No Due Certificatefrom the Library.
The Library follows ‘Dewey Decimal Classification’. The arrangement of books on shelves is asfollows:
300Social Sciences
400Language, Linguistics, Philology
500Natural Sciences and Mathematics
600Technology (Applied Science)
700The Arts (Fine and Decorative Arts)
800Literature and Rhetoric
900Geography, Biography, and History
Library maintains a catalogue of all the books procured. All the entries in it are arranged in a singlesequence in alphabetical order. You look for the book either under the surname of the author (ifavailable), title of the book, name of the series if you know, or under the subject name.
The special sequence number, if any is superimposed on the Book Number part of the Call Number.The following sequences are being maintained by the School Library:
BMeaning Biography
BBMeaning Book Bank
GMeaning Games & Sports
HBMeaning Hobby Books
ITMeaning Information Technology
RRReading Room
TB.VIMeaning textbook of 6th standard
TB.VIIMeaning textbook of 7th standard
TB.VIIMeaning textbook of 8th standard
TB.IXMeaning textbook of 9th standard
TB .XMeaning textbook of 10th standard
TB.XIMeaning textbook of 11th standard
TB.XIIMeaning textbook of 12th standard
Appendix ‘‘A”
001.2Scholarship & Learning
001.4Research methods
001.9Controversial Knowledge
003Operations Research
003.5Cybernetics, bionics
003.54Information Theory
004Computer Science, Data Processing
004.6Computer hardware
004.65Communication Network Architecture
004.7Computer Peripherals
005Computer Programming
005.13Programming Languages
005.3Software Programmes
005.43Operating Systems
005.7Data & Databases
006.3Artificial Intelligence
006.6Computer Graphics
006.7Multimedia Systems
016Subject Bibliographies
020Library & Information Science
030General Encyclopaedic Works
050General Serial Publications
060General Organisations & Muscology
070Journalism, Publishing
080General Collections
100Philosophy & related disciplines
135Dreams & Mysteries
156Comparative Psychology
157Abnormal Psychology
158Applied Psychology
170Ethics (Moral Psychology)
172Political Ethics
181Oriental Philosophy
190Modern Western Philosophy
291Comparative Religions
320Political Science
327International Relations
331Labour Economics
332Financial Economics
333Land Economics
335Socialism & Other Systems
336Public Finance
337International Economics
338Production Economics
341International Law
342Constitutional & Administrative Law
344Social Laws
345Criminal Law
346Private Law
347Civil Procedures & Courts
348Statutes, Regulations, Cases
349Laws of Individual States & Nations
350Public Administration
355Military Arts & Science
360Social Problems & Services
361Social Problems & Welfare
363.35Civil Defence
363.45Drug Traffiking
363.7Environmental Problems
372Elementary Education
373Secondary Education
374Adult Education
376Education of Women
378Higher Education
380Commerce (Trade)
381Internal Commerce
382International Commerce
389Metrology & Standardisation
390Customs, Etiquette, Folklore
391Costume & Personal Appearance
392Customs of Life Cycle & Domestic
395Etiquette (Manners)
403Dictionaries & Ecyclopaedias
423English Dictionaries
425English Grammar
4H0Hindi Linguistics
4H3Hindi Dictionaries
4H4Hindi Phonology
4H5Hindi Grammar
500Pure Sciences
503Scientific Dictionaries
505Scientific Serials
508Scientific explorations, Travels & Surveys
509Historical & Geographical Treatment
519Probabilities & Applied Mathematics
520Astronomy & Allied Sciences
526Mathematical Geography
532Mechanics of Fluids
533Mechanics of Gases
534Sound & Related Vibrations
535Light & Paraphotic Phenomena
537Electricity & Electronics
539Modern Physics
541Physical & Theoretical Chemistry
542Laboratories, Appratus, Equipment
543Analytical Chemistry
544Qualitative Chemistry
545Quantitative Chemistry
546Inorganic Chemistry
547Organic Chemistry
550Sciences of Earth & Other Worlds
551Geology, Meteorology, Hydrology
552Petrology (Rocks)
553Economic Geology
570Life Sciences
572Humman Races
573Physical Anthropology
580Botanical Sciences
590Zoological Sciences
600Technology (Applied Science)
610Medical Sciences, Medicine
611Human Anatomy, Cytology, Tissues
612Human Physiology
613General & Personal Hygiene
614Public Health
615Pharmacology & Therapeutics
617Surgery & Related Topics
620Engineering & Allied Operations
621Applied Physics
622Mining & Related Operations
624Civil Engineering
625Railroads, Highways
627Hydraulic Engineering
628Sanitary & Municipal Technologies
630Agriculture & Related Technologies
636Animal Husbandry
640Home Economics
651Office Management
658General Management
661Industrial Chemicals
662Explosives, Fuels, Related Products
663Beverage Technology
664Food Technology
665Industrial Oils, Fats, Waxes, Gases
666Cermaic & Allied Technologies
667Cleaning, Colour, Technologies
674Lumber, Cork, Wood Technologies
675Leather & Fur Technologies
676Pulp & Paper Technology
678Elastomers & Their Products
681Precision & Other Instruments
683Hardware & Household Appliances
685Leather & Fur Goods
686Printing & Related Activities
688Other Final Products & Packaging
691Building Materials
694Wood Construction Carpentry
700The Arts
708Art Galleries, Museums, Art Collections
711Area Planning (Civil Art)
712Landscape Design
724Modern Architecture
741Drawing & Drawings
749Furniture & Accessories
750Painting & Paintings
770Photography & Photographs
790Recreational & Performing Arts
794Indoor Games of Skills
795Games of Chance
796Athletic, Outdoor Sports & Games
799Fishing, Hunting, Shooting
820English & Anglo-Sexon Literatures
821English Poetry
822English Drama
823English Fiction
824English Essays
825English Speeches
826English Letters
827English Satire & Humour
828English Miscellaneous Writings
8H0Hindi Literature
8H1Hindi Poetry
8H2Hindi Drama
8H3Hindi Fiction
8H4Hindi Essay
8H5Hindi Speeches
8H6Hindi letters
8H7Hindi Satire & Humour
8H8Hindi Miscelleous Writing
904Collected Account of Events
909General World History
910General Geography & Travel
912Graphic Representation of Earth
913Geography of Ancient World
914Geography of Europe
915Geography of Asia
915.4Geography of India
916Geography of Africa
917Geography of North America
918Geography of South America
919Other Areas & World
920General Biography & Generology
929Geneology, Names, Insignia
930General History of Ancient World
942History of England & Wales
943History of Germany
944History of France
945History of Italy
946History of Spain
948History of Scandinevia
950General History of Asia
951History of China
952History of Japan
954History of India
955History of Iran (Persia)
956History of Middle East (Near East)
957History of Siberia (Asiatic Russia)
958History of Central Asia
959History of Southeast Asia
960General History of Africa
961History of North Africa
962History of Egypt & Sudan
963History of Ethiopia (Abyssinia)
965History of Algeria
968History of Southern Africa
970General History of North America
971History of Canada
972History of Mexico
973United States
980General History of South America
981History of Brazil
982History of Argentina
983History of Bolivia
985History of Peru
986History of Colombia & Ecuador
987History of Venezuela
988History of Guianas
989History of Paraguay & Uruguay
993History of New Zealands & Melanesia
994History of Australia
995History of New Guinea (Papua)
997History of Atlantic Ocean Islands
998History of Arctic Islands & Antarctica
999Extraterrestrial world
The following alphabetical schedule developed on the basis of 21st Edition for most commonsubjects with modifications/expansions may be found useful in School Libraries:
SubjectDDC Class No.
Abnormal Psychology157
Administration see Management
Adult Education374
Adult Psychology155.6
Agricultural Crops631
Agricultural Tools631.3
Air Transportation387
Alarm and Warning Systems384.7
Alcodical Crops633.7
Alcoholic Beverages663.1
SubjectDDC Class No.
Analytical Chemistry543
Ancient Architecture722
Ancient Civilisation909
Ancient History930
Ancient History of Greece938
Ancient History of India934
Ancient History of Europe936/938
Ancient Travels913
Animal Husbandry636
Animal Pathology591.2
Animal Pests632.6
Animal Physiology591.1
Applied Mathematics519
Applied Physics621
Applied Psychology158
Applied Science600
Architecture, Domestic-728
Architecture of Edu. Buildings727
Art Antiques745.1
Artifical Intelligence006.3
Assamese Dictionary4A3
Assamese. Essays8A4
Assamese Fiction / Story8A3
Assamese Grammar4A5
Assamese Language4AO
Assamese Literature8AO
Assamese Phonetics4A1
Assamese Plays8A2
Assamese Poetry8A1
Assamese Reader4A8.6
Assamese Satire and humour8A7
Athletic Sports796
Atomic Physics539.7
Aviation Engineering629.1
Ball Games796.3
Bee Keeping638
Bengali Dictionary4B3
Bengali Essays8B4
Bengali Fiction/Story8B3
Bengali Grammar4B5
Bengali Language4BO
Bengali Literature8BO
Bengali Phonetics4B1
Bengali Plays8B2
Bengali Poetry8B1
Bengali Satire and Humour8B7
Bengali Reader4B8.6
Beverage Technology663
Bhagvada Gita294.5924
Biographies in General920
Bird Hunting799.24
Block Printing761
Blood Banks362.17
Book Binding686.3
Book Keeping657.2
Bronze Age930.15
Building Material691
Business Ethics174.4
Business Forecasting338.544
Cable TV384.5556
Ceramic Art738
Ceramic Technology666
Chemical Engineering660.2
Child Care649
Child Psychology155.4
Civic and Landscape Art710
Civil Engineering624
Civil Rights323.4
Civil War303.66
Clinical Psychology157.9
Coins and seals737.4
Colour Wash/Painting698
Comparative Governments320.5
Comparative Politics320.5
Computer Games793.1
Computer Graphics006.6
Computer Hardware004.6
Computer Peripherals004.7
Computer Programming005.1
Computer Programming Languages005.13
Computer Science, Data Processing004
Communication Network Architecture004.65
Constitutional History of Britain342.41029
Constitutional History of India342.54029
Constitutional Law342
Controversial Knowledge001.9
Cooperative Movement334
Copper age930.15
Cosmetics Manufacturers668.55
Cottage Industry338.642
Criminal Law345
Cultivation and Harvesting631.5
Cybernotices, bionics574.87322
Dairy Farming637
Data & Database005.7
Descriptive Astronomy523
Domestic Customs392
Domestic Science640
Domestic Trade381
Dramatic Music782
Dress Making646
Dry Cleaning667.12
Dry Farming631.586
Earth Science550
Ecology of Animals591.5
Economic Botany581.6
Economic Geography330.9
Economic Geology553
Economic Zoology591.6
Edible oils669.3
Educational Administration371 .2
Educational Guidance/Counselling371.4
Educational Psychology370.15
Educational Technolgy371.3078
Electrical Engineering621.3
Electro Dynamics537.6
Elementary Education372
Engineering Drawings/Graphics604.2
English Dictionary423
English Drama822
English Essays824
English Fiction823
English Grammar425
English Language420
English Literature820
English Phonology421
English Plays822
English Poetry821
English Reader828.6
English Satire and Humour827
Environmental Problems/Studies363.7
Eolithic age930.11
Experimental Medicine619
Explosive Technology662.2
Export Trade382.6
External Affairs327
Fairy Tales398
Family Planning613.9
Ferrous Metals672
Fertilizer Technology668.62
Fibre Crops633.5
Financial Accounting657.48
Financial Management658.15
Financial Economics332
Fine Arts700
First Aid616.0252
Floor Covering698.9
Flowering Plants582
Fluid Mechanics532
Folk Art745
Folk Dance793.31
Folk Literature398.2
Folk Song784.4
Folk Lore398
Food Crops633.1
Food Technology664
Forage Crops633.2
Foreign Policy327
Foreign Relations327
Foreign Trade382
Fundamental Rights323.4
Games and Sports (Indoor)793/794
Games and Sports (Outdoor)796
Games Theory519.3
Glass Technology666.1
Glassware Art748
Golf796.362Government Service Rules351.1
Graphic Arts760
Guidance & Counselling371.4
Gujarati Dictionary4G3
Gujarati Essays8G4
Gujarati Fiction/Story8G3
Gujarati Grammar4G5
Gujarati Language4G0
Gujarati Literature8G0
Gujarati Plays8G2
Gujarati Poetry8G1
Gujarati Reader4G8.6
Gujrati Satire and Humour8G7
Handicrafts Arts745.5
Harmful Plants632.5
Health & Hygiene613
Higher Education378
Hindi Dictionary4H3
Hindi Essay8H4
Hindi Fiction/Story8H3
Hindi Grammar4H5
Hindi Language4H0
Hindi Literature8H0
Hindi Phonology4H1
Hindi Poetry8H1
Hindi Reader4H8.6
Hindi Satire and Humour8H7
Historical Geography911
History of Afghanistan958.1
History of Africa960
History of Australia994
History of Bangladesh954.92
History of British India954.03
History of Burma959.1
History of Canada971
History of China951
History of England and Wales942
History of France944
Home Decoration645
Home Kitchen Gardening635
Home Economics/ Science640
Home Science640
Horse Racing798.4
Horse Riding798.23
Household Appliances683.8
Household Textiles & Laundry648.1
Human Anatomy611
Human Physiology612
Human Races572
Hydraulic Engineering627
Ice and Snow Sports796.9
History of Germany943
History of Great Britain941
History of India954
History of Iran955
History of Iraq956.7
History of Italy945
History of Jammu & Kashmir954.6
History of Japan952
History of Madhya Pradesh954.3
History of Mughal India954.025
History of Nepal954.96
History of North America974
History of Pakistan954.9
History of Portugal946.9
History of Punjab954.5
History of Rajasthan954.4
History of Rajput India954.02
History of Russia947
History of Science509
History of South America980
History of Spain946
History of Sri Lanka954.93
History of Switzerland949.4
History of United Kingdom941
History of USA973
History of USSR947
History of Uttar Pradesh954.2
Import Trade382.5
Income Tax336.24
Indian Constitution342.5402
Indian Foreign Relations327.54
Indian Freedom Struggle954.03
Indian Government Service Rules354.001
Indian Gazetteer915.4003
Indian National Congress
Indian Philosophy181.4
Indian Political Parties324.254
Indian Religions294
Indoor Games794
Indus Valley Civilisation934
Industrial Biology660.6
Industrial Commerce382
Industrial Gases665.7
Industrial Oils665
Information theory003.54
Inorganic Acids661.2
Inorganic Chemistry546
Insect Pests632.9
Instrumental Music785
Interior Decoration747
Internal Commerce381
International Economics337
International Law341
International Relations327
International Trade Agreements382.9
Iron Age930.16
Jute Crop633.54
Kannada Dictionary4K3
Kannada Essays8K4
Kannada Grammar4K5
Kannada Fiction/Story8K3
Kannada Language4KO
Kannada Literature8KO
Kannada Plays8K2
Kannada Poetry8K1
Kannada Reader4K8.6
Kannada Satire and Humour8K7
Kitchen Appliances683.82
Kite Flying796.15
Labour Economics331
Land and People910
Land Reforms333.31
Landscape Design712
Leather Technology675
Library & Information Science020
Library Architecture727.8
Life Sciences570
Liquid Mechanics532
Liquor Technology663.5
Literacy Criticism809
Lithographic Process763
Lok Sabha328.32
Lumber Technology674
Magic Art793.8
Magic & Witch Craft133.43
Malayalam Dictionary4MA.3
Malayalam Essays8MAA
Malayalam Fiction/Story8MA.3
Malayalam Grammar4MA.5
Malayalam Language4MA
Malayalam Literature8MA
Malayalam Plays8MA.2
Malayalam Poetry8MA. 1
Malayalam Reader4MA.86
Malayalam Satire and Humour8MA.7
Management Sciences658
Marathi Dictionary4M3
Marathi Dramas8M2
Marathi Essays8M4
Marathi Fiction/Story8M3
Marathi Grammar4M5
Marathi Language4M0
Marathi Literature8M0
Marathi Plays8M2
Marathi Poetry8M1
Marathi Reader4M8.6
Marathi Satire and Humour8M7
Marine Biology574.92
Marketing Management658.8
Materials Management658.7
Mathematical Geography526
Meals Preparation642
Mechanical Engineering621
Mechanics of Fluids532
Mechanics of Gases533
Medical Diagnosis616.075
Medical Pathology616.07
Medieval Architecture723
Medieval History940-990
Medieval Sculputure734
Mesolithic Age930.13
Metal Engraving765
Metal Manufacturing671
Metal Work Art739
Military Engineering623
Military Science355
Mining Engineering622
Modern Architecture724
Modern History of Africa960
Modern History of America
Modern History of America
Modern History of Asia950
Modern History of Europe940
Modern History of India954
Modern Physics539
Modern Sculpture735
Molecular Biology574.88
Molecular Zoology591.8
Motion Pictures791.4
Multimedia systems006.7
Museum Architecture727.6
Musical Instruments681.8
National Cadet Corps355.5
National Emblem929.9
National Flag929.92
National Social Service Scheme361
Needle Work Art746.4
Neolithic (New Stone) Age930.14
Nepali Dictionary4N3
Nepali Grammar4N5
Nepali Fiction / Story8N3
Nepali Language4N0
Nepali Literature8N0
Nepali Phonetics4N1
Nepali Plays8N2
Nepali Poetry8N1
Nepali Reader4N8.6
Nepali Satire and Humour8N7
Noise Pollution363.74
Nonferrous Metals673
Nuclear Engineering621.48
Nuclear Physics539.7
Nursery Rhymes398.8
Office Management651.3
Operations Research003
Operating Systems005.4
Optical Instruments Optics681.4
Organic Acids634
Organic Chemistry661.86
Oriental Architecture547
Oriental Philosophy722
Oriya Dictionary4O3
Oriya Essays8O4
Oriya Fiction/Story8O3
Oriya Grammar4O5
Oriya Literature8O0
Oriya Phonetics4O1
Oriya Plays8O2
Oriya Poetry8O1
Oriya Reader4O8.6
Oriya Satire and Humour8O7
Oriental Philosophy180
Other Religions299
Out door Games796
Painting & Paintings750
Paleolithic Age (Stone)930.12
Paper Technology676.2
Personnel Management658.3
Performing Arts790.2
Physical Anthropology573
Physical Chemistry541.3
Physical Education372.86
Physical Fitness613.7
Physical Geography910.02
Physical Geography of India915.402
Physical Therapy615.82
Pig Farming636.4
Plant Anatomy581.4
Plant Diseases632.3
Plant Ecology581.5
Plant Genetics581.15
Plant Pathology581.2
Plant Physiology581.1
Plastic Art730
Political Parties324.2
Political Science320
Pollution Problem363.73
Population Education363.9
Population Statistics312
Postal Communications383
Poultry Farming636.5
Pre-historic Geography913
Precision Instruments681
Primary Education372
Printing & Dyeing667.3
Printing Machines681.62
Production Economics338.5
Production Management658.5
Programming languages005.13
Public Administration350
Public Architecture725
Public Enterprises338.74
Public Finance336
Public Health614
Public Relations659.2
Pulp Technology676.1
Punjabi Dictionary4P3
Punjabi Drama8P2
Punjabi Essays8P4
Punjabi Fiction/Story8P3
Punjabi Grammar4P5
Punjabi Language4P0
Punjabi Literature8P0
Punjabi Phonetics4P1
Punjabi Plays8P2
Punjabi Poetry8P1
Punjabi Reader4P8.6
Punjabi Satire and Humour8P7
Puppet Making745.59224
Qualitative Chemistry544
Quantitative Chemistry545
Radio Broadcasting384.54
Radio Engineering621.384
Railway Engineering625.1
Railway Transportation385
Rajya Sabha328.31
Reading Comprehension372.4
Research methods001.4
Religious Architecture726
Religious Education377
Religious Music783
Rhetorica and Collection808
River Transport386.3
Road Transportation388
Sacred Music783
Sanitary Engineering628
Sanitation Problem & Services363.72
Sanskrit Dictionary4S3
Sanskrit Drama8S2
Sanskrit Essays8S4
Sanskrit Fiction/Story8S3
Sanskrit Grammar4S5
Sanskrit Language4S0
Sanskrit Literature8S0
Sanskrit Phonetics4S1
Sanskrit Play8S2
Sanskrit Poetry8S1
Sanskrit Reader4S8.6
Sanskrit Satire and Humour8S7
Scholarship & learning001.2
School Administration371.2
Science Dictionary503
Scouts and Guides369.4092
Screen Printing764.8
Secondary Education373
Secretarial Practice651
Sewage Disposal628.3
Sheep Farming636.3
Small Scale Industry338.643
Social Science Dictionary300.3
Social Sciences300
Social Services360
Social Welfare361
Software programme005.3
Solar Energy Engineering621.47
Solar System523.2
Sound (Physics)534
Spanish Dictionary463
Spanish Fiction/Story863
Spanish Grammar465
Spanish Language460
Spanish Literature860
Spanish Phonetics461
Spanish Plays862
Spanish Poetry861
Spanish Reader868.6
Spanish Satire and Humour867
Special Education371.9
Statistical Mathematics519.5
Statistical Mechanics530.13
Subject Bibliography016
Sugarcane Crops633.6
Sugar Technology664.1
Systems Analysis and Design004.2
Tamil Dictionary4T3
Tamil Essays8T4
Tamil Fiction/Story8T3
Tamil Grammar4T5
Tamil Language4T0
Tamil Literature8T0
Tamil Phonetics411
Tamil Plays8T2
Tamil Poetry8T1
Tamil Reader4T8.6
Tamil Satire and Humour8T7
Teaching Aids371.3078
Teaching Methods371.3
Television Engineering621.388
Television Broadcasting384.554
Television Network384.5455
Telugu Dictionary4TE3
T elugu Essays8TE4
Telugu Fiction/Story8TE3
Telugu Grammar4TE5
Telugu Language4TE0
Telugu Literature8TE0
Telugu Phonetics4TE1
Telugu Plays8TE2
Telugu Poetry8TE1
Telugu Reader4TE8.6
Telugu Satire and Humour8TE7
Textile Art746
Textile Designing677.022
Theatre Music782.8
The Humanities001.3
Theoretical Chemistry541.2
Town Planning711
Travels in Africa916.04
Travels in Asia915.04
Travels in Europe914.04
Travels in India915.404
Travels in Nepal915.49604
Travels in North America917.04
Travels in South America918.04
Travels in U.S.A.917.304
Type Writing652.3
United Nations Organisation341.23
Urdu Dictionary4U3
Urdu Essays8U4
Urdu Fiction/Story8U3
Urdu Grammar4U5
Urdu Phonology4U1
Urdu Language4U0
Urdu Literature8U0
Urdu Plays8U2
Urdu Poetry8U1
Urdu Reader4U8.6
Urdu Satire and Humour8U7
Veterinary Sciences/Medicine636.089
Vocal Music784
Vocational Education371.425
Vegetable Crops635
Waste Disposal363.728
Watch Making681.114
Water Pollution628.16
Water Supply628.1
Waterway Transportation386
Western Philosophy190
Women’s Education376
World War I940.3
World War II940.53
Appendix “B”
– 01Philosophy & Theory
– 015Scientific Principles
– 016Subject Bibliography
– 019Psychological Principles
– 02Miscellany
– 022Handbook etc.
– 024Work for specific type of users
– 025Directory
– 0272Patents
– 0285Data Processing
– 03Dictionary, encyclopaedias
– 032English Dictionary
– 03AAssamese Dictionary
– 03BBengali Dictionary
– 03GGujarati Dictionary
– 03HHindi Dictionary
– 03KKannada Dictionary
– 03KAKashmiri Dictionary
– 03KOKonkani Dictionary
– 03MMarathi Dictionary
– 03MAMalayalm Dictionary
– 03NNepali Dictionary
– 03OOriya Dictionary
– 03PPunjabi Dictionary
– 03SSanskrit Dictionary
– 03SISindhi Dictionary
– 03TTamil Dictionary
– 03TETelugu Dictionary
– 03UUrdu Dictionary
– 05Serials, Periodicals, Magazines
– 06Organisations, Associations
– 068Societies Management
– 07Study and Teaching
– 071Schools and Courses
– 0711Universities and Colleges
– 0712Secondary Schools
– 072Research
– 076Review and Exercise
– 077Programmed texts
– 079Competitions and Awards
– 09Historical and geographical
– 0901Early period
– 0902Sixth to 15th century
– 0903Modern period
– 09031Sixteenth century
– 09032Seventeenth century
– 09033Eighteenth century
– 09034Nineteenth century
– 090420th century
– 090521st century
– 092Biography
– 0926Case Histories
– 0954552in Himachal Pradesh
– 0954558in Haryana
– 095456in Delhi
– 09546in Jammu & Kashmir
– 09547in Western India
– 095475in Gujarat
– 0954792in Maharashtra
– 0954796in Dadra and Nagar Haveli
– 095499in Goa, Daman and Diu
– 095481in Lakshadweep
– 095482in Tamil Nadu
– 095483in Kerala
– 095484in Andhra Pradesh
– 095486in Pondicherry
– 095487in Karnataka
– 095488in Andaman & Nicobar
– 095491in Pakistan
– 095492in Bangladesh
– 095493in Sri Lanka
– 095495in Maldives
– 095496in Nepal
– 095498in Bhutan
– 093in ancient world
– 094in Europe
– 095in Asia
– 0951in China
– 0952in Japan
– 0954in India
– 095412in Bihar
– 095413in Orissa
– 095414in West Bengal
– 095415in Tripura
– 095416in North East
– 0954162in Assam
– 0954163in Arunachal Pradesh
– 0954164in Meghalaya
– 0954165in Nagaland
– 0954166in Mizoram
– 0954167in Sikkim
– 095417in Manipur
– 09542in Uttar Pradesh
– 09543in Madhya Pradesh
– 09544in Rajasthan
– 09545in Punjab
Appendix “C”
-Encylopaedia Britannica Almanac 2005
-Information Please Almanac.
-World Almanac and Book of Facts, New York: Newspaper Enterprise Association.
-Atlas of Indian States, edited by P. Poovendran. Madras: T.T Maps and Publications.
-Atlas of Solar System, by David A. Hardy, London: Peerage Books.
-Atlas of World Geography, edited by Emrys Jones, London: Peerage Books. -. NationalGeographic Atlas of the World, Washington:
-Oxford School Atlas, Delhi: OUP.
-Pictorial Atlas for Children, edited by Philip Steele and Keith Lye, London: Optimum Books.
Biographical Dictionaries
-Chamber’s Biographical Dictionary. Edinburg: W&P Chambers. – Dictionary of NationalBiography.
-India Who’s Who, Bombay: INFA Publications
-Children’s Illustrated Dictionary
-Dictionary of Modern English Usage, edited H. W. Fowler. London: ELBS. – Everyman’sEnglish Pronouncing Dictionary, by Daniel Jones, London: ELBS.
-Longman Dictionary of Common Errors, by J.B. Heaton and N.D. Turton. London: Longman.
-Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English Delhi: OUP. – Rogers Thesaurusof Synonyms and Antonyms, Tophi Books.
-Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases, by Peter Mark Roget, New York: Avenel Books.
-Compton’s Encyclopaedia
-Discovering Science, Ohio: Merrill. 5 Volumes
-Encyclopaedia of Sports, by R.G. Goel, New Delhi: Vikas.
-Encyclopaedia of Education by AJ. Meel
-Junior Pears Encyclopaedia, edited by Edward Bishen, London: Pelhm Books. – Lands andPeople: The World in Colours. London: Grolier. 7 volumes.
-Junior Britannica Encyclopaedia. Chicago: Encyclopaeda Britannica
Books of Facts
-1000 Crime Quiz, by Anil Aggarwal, Calcutta: Rupa & Co.
-100 General Quiz, by G. Basu, Calcutta: Rupa & Co.
-1000 Great Events Through the Ages, by Brenda Ralf Lewis et al. London: Hamlyn.
-1000 Movie Quiz, by G.S. Praveen et al. Calcutta: Rupa & Co.
-1000 North-Eastern Region Quiz, by Pramila Pandit Barooah. Calcutta: Rupa & Co.
-1500 Fascinating Facts, London: Octopus Books.
-5000 Gems of Wit and Wisdom, compiled by Laurel’Jce J Peter, London: Treasure Press.
-ABC of Human Body, London: Reader’s Digest Association.
-Cadbury’s Boumvita Book of Knowledge, edited by Derek O’Brien and Joy Bhattacharyya.Calcutta: Big Ideas. 8 volumes.
– Top 10 of Everything, by Russell Ash. London: Queen Anne Press.
-Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World, New York: Columbia University Press.
Books of Quotations
-100 Quotations and Answers, Hongkong, Lynex Press.
-Concise Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, London: OUP.
-Dictionary of Famous Quotations, by Robin Hyman. London: Pan Books.
-Dictionary of Indian Quotations, by Jagat Singh and Harish Chandra Jagat, New Delhi:Parichaya Overseas.
-Hamlyn Dictionary of Quotations, by Rosalind Ferguson, London: Hamlyn.
-Penguin Dictionary of Modem Humorous Quotations, by Fred Metcalf. London: Pan Books.
-Quotations from Great Masters, by Choo Dev. Delhi: Hind Book House.
-Penguin Dictionary of Twentieth- Century Quotations, by J.M. Cohen and M.J. Cohen,London: Penguin Books.
Travel Guides
-Fader’s Guide to India, Tokyo: Hodder and Stoughton.
-INFO India: The Complete Traveller’s Guide. Delhi Tourism Books.
Books of Records
-Guinness Record 1995 edited by Peter Matthews. Guinness Publishing Ltd. PP310
-Limca Book of Record 1995 Distributed by UBS, Ansari Road, New Delhi. PP 240
Year Books
-Competition Success Review Year Book. New Delhi:
-Hindustan Year Book and Who’s Who, Calcutta M.C. Sarkar.
-India: A Reference Annual, New Delhi, Publication Division, Govt. of India.
-India Book of the Year 2005.
-India – A Reference Annual
-Manorama Year Book. Kottayam: Malayala Manorama
-United Nations Year Book.
List of Websites useful for Schools and Educational Institutions
All India Council for Technical Education
Association of Indian Universities –
British Council site with loads of resources and activities –
Central Board of Secondary Education –
Council for the Indian School Certificate Examination –
Developing Library Network –
Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan –
National Council for Teachers Education –
National Council of Educational Research and Training –
National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration –
National Institute of Open Schooling –
Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti –
United Nations Educational Scientific & Cultural Organisation –
United States Educational Foundation of India – http://www.fulbright_org
University Grants Commission –
Website to help teachers –
Wikipedia –


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